Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy. Cold War During Cold War, US policy focus on containing communism Defining our vital interest Political values define our interest US."— Presentation transcript:
Cold War During Cold War, US policy focus on containing communism Defining our vital interest Political values define our interest US wants to encourage our constitutional ideas and improve the world
Now New foreign policy challenges Terrorism Involved in 2 wars ISIS, Al Qaeda, every-changing threat Population growth and poverty Trade with China China’s regard for human rights comes into play They are asserting themselves more in foreign policy Nuclear and biological arms control North Korea Iran Some people believe “preemptive intervention” necessary to keep weapons from dangerous nations
EU and the Future of NATO Economically strong Europe poses threat to the US Frequently our allies Disagreement on Israel/Palestine NATO expansion threatens Russia
Drugs Drug problems in US often stem from Latin American countries Do we use foreign policy to combat this?
Global Environment US is both a leading polluter and leading environmental advocate! Climate change?
Foreign Policy Lies directly under the President All begins with the President Bargains, negotiates, persuades, calls up armed forces, recognizes foreign nations Congress has power to declare war, appropriate funds, and make rules for the armed forces, ratify treaties President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces Expected to negotiate treaties, send and receive ambassadores, spends much time negotiating with leaders of countries Head of foreign policy after President is Secretary of State State, Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Energy, CIA, all report to Pres.
War Powers Act 1973 Congressional attempt to take back power ceded to the executive branch President must report to Congress within 48 hours of inolving US troops in combat Congress must authorize troop deployment after 60 days, otherwise President has to withdraw troops Included legislative veto, but Supreme Court struck that part down No president has ever acknowledged act as constitutional
National Security Council Created by Congress in 1947 Helps president integrate foreign, military, and econ. Policies Different from NSA-National Security Administration
State Department 1 st line of defense Security of the nation
The UN 185 members Set up in 1945 Has reputation of ineffectiveness During 1 st 45 years the General Assembly of UN was dominated by 3 rd world and communist countries After Cold War Security Council worked more in harmony Harder to raise funds and support for peacekeeping army Should all in General Assembly have equal vote? Not all contribute the same amount How efficient is the UN’s bureaucracy? US provides 25% of UN’s annual budget? Critics question US involvement
The Politics of Foreign Policy Public opinion: 75% is “mass public” Know little of foreign affairs 15-20% “attentive public” The rest are “opinion-makers” (teachers, political leaders) Special interest group: ethnic interest groups play important role Pressure to help certain countries Foreign countries: countries have lobbyists in US Political Parties: Partisan policy is kept out of foreign policy (generally) Bipartisanship is favored Congress: crucial link between policy-makers and public Often divided on issues of foreign policy Sometimes blocks White House proposals
US Security and Defense Protecting American interests at home and abroad What does it do? Defer nuclear attack Restrain proliferation of armaments Defend allies Forestall regional conflicts that could threaten interests Since 9/11 focused on terrorism We’ve only declared war 5 times, but intervened 190 Are we spread too thin?
Dept. of Defense The Pentagon-provide strategic vision and practial coordination Unification Act of 1946 brought Army, Navy, and Air Force under same organization chart Joint Chiefs of Staff-advise President, NSC Dept. of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 shifted power to the chair of JCS The chair of the JCS is the most powerful peacetime military officer Reorg. Act also strengthened commanders in various “theaters” around the world
4 Major Components of Defense Dept. 1. Office of the Secretary of Defense 2. The JCS 3. Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps 4. Intelligence and Defense Intelligence Agency, NSA What are the inner conflicts?
Defense Spending Political Pressures Military funds are approved because cutting it directly affects voters hence affecting Congress people Defense Dept attempts to shut down uneconomical/unneeded bases frustrated 1988 Congress sets up bypass strategy-Separate committee decides which bases to shut down. Must then get approval of Pres. and Congress
Military Strategy Strategy of deterrence-ability to threaten mass retaliation on any nation that attacks us MAD has insured 5 decades of peace Doesn’t work with terrorism-why?