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A procedural model for corpus- based interlanguage research Przemysław Kaszubski School of English Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland ICAME 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "A procedural model for corpus- based interlanguage research Przemysław Kaszubski School of English Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland ICAME 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 A procedural model for corpus- based interlanguage research Przemysław Kaszubski School of English Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań, Poland ICAME 2002 Göteborg May 2002

2 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Goals zpractical model for obtaining useful corpus- based findings involving learner data zalternative / supplementary to Grangers (1996) integrated CA model when no parallel corpora are available

3 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Grangers (1996) CIA model

4 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Grangers (1996) integrated contrastive model

5 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Alternative model - some principles & assumptions yat least two proficiency / maturity levels – corresponding between native L1 and native L2 ypossible variation in NNS proficiency levels for the nationality group investigated ysingle genre / register yfocus on common features of L1 that may be likely to transfer into L2 yopportunity to capture L1 habits of younger learners that may transfer into L2

6 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Alternative model : a possible corpus configuration

7 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Alternative model - step 1 y1. comparison within L1 - identification of material: xcollect linguistic features characterising L1 at the chosen level of maturity/age xcorpus-driven or intuition-based origin of search xPath1: feature common in both learner and professional texts -> likely transfer into L2 xPath 2: frequency incompatible in learner and professional texts -> likely developmental feature (at least for L1) -> may transfer into L2 at comparable maturity/age level

8 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Alternative model - step 2 y2. For feature selected in Step 1 – build a base of possible target language equivalents xattention to structural equivalents and false-friends xdictionaries xbilingual self-competence xinformants, questionnaires etc.

9 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Alternative model - steps 3 & 4 y3. Quantitative comparisons of targeted L2 features in L2 learner and native speaker data. E.g.: xis the feature characteristic of (L2) learners of certain age? xis the feature typical of NNS learners only? is the feature used by NS learners as opposed to NS adult users? y4. Pedagogical application of findings (not covered) xblanked-out learner text samples xNS corpus-based exercises

10 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (1): Step 1: corpus-driven method yStep 1: Learner vs professional Polish argumentative and expository writing: xlearner underuse of semantically specialist terms and a few grammatical words (prepositions) - president, musical, film, bank, cabaret, political, party, culture, Christ xtypical learner overuse of many common and/or generic items (man, is, people, women, love, television, us, very, think, feeling, can) xlearner overuse of relativisers: co (= what, which) and który (= which, who)

11 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (2): Step 1 (ctnd) yco in MWU sentence adverbials (cohesive devices):

12 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (3): Co więcej yCo więcej – typical connector of addition/emphasis for formal writing in Polish xClosest & most prominent synonyms: ponadto13 (learner)19 (professional) w dodatku62 poza tym348 xponadto is the most formal xthe other two, especially poza tym, also frequent in speech

13 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (4): Co więcej- Steps 2 & 3

14 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (5): Co więcej vs. What is more yCo więcej seems to transfer into Polish-English what is more easily (compelling structural correspondence?) ywhat is more perhaps not always as writerly y(Polish) students may be too generous with the use of less formal transitions of addition / argument expansion (cf. besides vs poza tym) yemerging need to: xencourage use of the more formal connectors xshow how to economise on connectors

15 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (6): (a / i) co za tym idzie yyoung users popular connector of result/ consequence/ succession – apparently not ideally suited for formal style ymay front a sentence, but typically bridges clauses within a sentence, e.g.: xBierny tryb życia - przed telewizorem - pogarsza sprawność naszego organizmu powodując otyłość, niewydolność serca, płuc, nerek, itd., a co za tym idzie - jest przyczyną wylewów i zawałów serca. [A passive lifestyle in front of a television set deteriorates body fitness, leading to obesity, heart, lung, kidney etc. failure, and _________ bringing on strokes and coronary disease.]

16 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (7): (a / i) co za tym idzie - Step 1 (ctnd) & 2 yin student writing no other synonym can match it for frequency, rather unlike in professional texts: xw konsekwencji4 (learners)6 (adults) xw rezultacie62 xa/i przez to22 xa co za tym idzie181

17 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (8): (a / i) co za tym idzie: Steps 2 & 3

18 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Example (9): (and) what follows (it) = as a result?!!* ystructural equivalent of co za tym idzie: xinfrequent but fairly systematic: a 350,000-word corpus yields occurrences ythe combination what follows predominantly used in the above way by writing Poles ythe use unattested in the BNC: yWe are back again in disputed ground. In the bewildering tracery formed by the work and by the claims and counter-claims that it has provoked, there is matter for a hundred lectures, and what follows is neither an attempt to summarize, nor a rival undertaking. (BNC) The development of industry, and what follows the birth of huge urban metropolises have divided people into those living in big cities and those inhabiting small towns. (PICLE)

19 ICAME 2002, Göteborg Conclusions: some strengths of the scheme yOffers insights into the interface between learner and professional levels of writing, helping capture the interaction between transfer and users age/maturity level yCan point out possible transfer cases (esp. loan translations) which are not very frequent and which might be overlooked when directly accessing a small- sized L2 learner corpus yProduces reliable material for corrective ELT work

20 ICAME 2002, Göteborg This show shortly available from: ****** Latest PICLE (350,000 words) can be concordanced at: (comparable native Polish material to be added shortly)


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