Presentation on theme: "Chapter eleven linguistics and foreign language teaching"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter eleven linguistics and foreign language teaching
211.1 the relation between linguistics and language teaching Why this chapter in this book?1.2.Linguists’ achievements can help language teachers a lot in classroom teaching
311.2 linguistics and language learning Linguistics has always played an important role in the studies of language acquisition and learning.Linguistics has indeed been relevant to second language acquisiton research.Linguistics studies and language learning research are intricately related to each other.Linguistics generates significance on language learning.How linguistics can help to contribute to the solution of some disputable issues in language learning research.
411.2.1 grammar and language learning Two different approches to language learning1. purely form-focused approches2. purely meaning-focused approches3. the compromise of the first two: focus on formThe point in “Focus on form” is that although language learning should generally be meaning-focused and communication-oriented, it is still necessary and beneficial to focus on form occasionally.
5Problems with “focus on form” One of them is:what elements of language are most amenable to focus on form.Two variables concerning the amenability of language elements to focus on form are the relevance of universal grammar (UG) and complexity of structures.Grammar has its due value in language learning.It is a pity that we do not know enough about grammar and we do not agree on what grammar is. That is, this is not a reliable model of grammar available.None of the formalist models, generative models, or functional models makes it clear that how grammar can be learned.So we need a better description of grammar, a better model acknowledged universally.
611.2.2 input and language learning Language input in the following ways:1. spoken way2. written way3. interactive way4. non-reciprocal wayNo one can deny the importance of input in language learning
7Problems with language input What input should be provided to the learners?People can not reach an agreements.Their different views about the question:1. authentic language material2. comprehensible inputThe two developments of Krashen’s COMPREHENSIBLE INPUTA. premodified inputB. interactively modified inputB produces a better job.Problems encountered in the course of research on input1. Theoretical research: the lack of linguistic analysis of different input..2. empirical research
811.2.3 interlanguage in language learning Output can equally promote language acquisition. This view is in line with the so-called constructivism.What is interlanguage?The features of interlangugeWe need linguistics knowledge in the analysis of the learners’ interlanguage. Again, linguistics can play a part in language learning.
911.3 linguistics and language teaching The influence of linguistics on language teachingLinguistics influences language teaching at two levels:At the macro-levelAt the micro-level
1011.3.1 the discourse-based view of language teaching Why the discourse-based view of language teaching?Its features:Discourse competence=communicative competenceWhat is communicative competenceGrammatical competencePragmatic competence
11CLT and TBLT are the products of discourse view of language CLT and TBLT are the products of discourse view of language. Learning language is to accomplishing tasks.Learning by doing.Two types of tasks:Real-world tasksPedagogical tasksWhy pedagogical tasks?
12Criticism against the discourse-based view of language teaching. 1.2.3.
1311.3.2 the universal grammar and language teaching The attempts of UGIts view of language learningWhy this view?1.2.The implications of UG upon language teaching and learningThe view of the proponents of UG:The criticism of the opponents of UG:3.4.
14The influences of UGA.B.The evidence in support of UG, on the other hand, is not conclusive….
1511.4 linguistics and syllabus design The importance of syllabus designIt is a bridge between language teaching theory and language teaching practice.The most important part of syllabus design is….
1611.4.1 a clarification of terms: syllabus and curriculum The reasons for the confusion of syllabus and curriculum1.2.The differentiation of the two by three experts1. Stern2. Nunan3. Rodgers
17Since 1980’s, the recognition of the importance curriculum development processes in language program design.The differences of the two, made by the author of this chapter1.2.
1811.4.2 theoretical views behind syllabus design The process of syllabus design in foreign language teaching mainly includes selecting and grading what is to be taught.Why selection?How to select?1.2.What to selectGrading comes after the selecting.How to grade?How linguistics plays its role in syllabus design?
19types of syllabusA syllabus is designed depending on the designer’s view of language and view of language teaching and learning.The ever proposed syllabuses (syllabi)….
20(1) The structure syllabus DefinitionIts linguistics theory baseIts featuresThe popularity of itThe shortcomings of it
21(2) the situational syllabus It does not have a strong linguistic basis.It takes the view that language is used for communication.The aim of itHow it selects and organize language itemsAural-oral teaching method is the baby of this type of syllabus.How language is taught by the aural-oral method?The advantages of it in comparison with structural syllabus.But it is essentially a grammatical syllabus.
22(3) The communicative syllabus Based on a notional-functional syllabus, it teaches the language needed to express and understand different kinds of functions, and emphasizes the process of communication.Ten components of a communicative syllabus, suggested by Yalden.Why a variety of communicative syllabus?
23(4) The task-based syllabus what is a task-based syllabus?Definitions of task123The differences of the threeWhat is real-work tasks?What are pedgogical tasks?The relation of the three?The feature of the later definition of tasks?
24qualities of a task by Skehan What a task is like?12345The latest definitionA working definition of task by four scholars
25The nature of TBLTPrinciples we should follow in designing tasks123456
2611.4.4 components of syllabus What to include in a syllabus123456
2711.4.5 current trends in syllabus design 1. The coexisting of the old and the new.2. The emphasis on learning process.3. The inclusion of non-linguistic objectives in syllabus.4. The emergence of the multi-syllabus.a multi-syllabus combines the features of some syllabuses (syllabi) together. But it does not mean that the design of a multi-syllabus is the simple combination of elements from different types of syllabus. Rather, it is a matter of choice of priority.
28Currently, the practice of adhering to one type of syllabus throughout the language program is rare. Why syllabus designers tend to design a multi-syllabus?12
2911.5 contrastive analysis and error analysis What is language transfer?Positive transfer?Negative transfer (interference)?
3011.5.1 contrastive analysis (CA) The definitionThe goalThe theoretical bases for CA (behavorism and structuralism)123456
31The problems with CA123Nowadays in the literature of SLA, the term “contrastive analysis” is gradually been replaced by “the study of cross-linguistic influence”.
3211.5.2 error analysis Why the replacement of CA by error analysis? What is its claim?Errors are different from mistakes.ErrorsMistakesThe source of errors:Interlingual onesIntralingual onesThe types of errors (the nature of errors)12345
3511.6 corpus linguistics and language teaching Corpus can help language teaching.Two most important factors in a corpus are the size and types of texts selected.Usually the uses will be made of the corpus decide the number and type of texts in a corpus.
36types of corporaFour types of corpora/corpus1234
3711.6.2 what uses can we make of corpora? From corpora, we can find very useful information about how language is actually used.Corpora provide five types of information:12345
3811.7 summaryThe influence of linguistic theory upon language teaching at various stages:….The applications and implications of linguistic theories are useful in the field of language teaching, but we should know two points clearly.12