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Chapter eleven linguistics and foreign language teaching.

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1 Chapter eleven linguistics and foreign language teaching

2 11.1 the relation between linguistics and language teaching Why this chapter in this book? Linguists’ achievements can help language teachers a lot in classroom teaching

3 11.2 linguistics and language learning Linguistics has always played an important role in the studies of language acquisition and learning. Linguistics has indeed been relevant to second language acquisiton research. Linguistics studies and language learning research are intricately related to each other. Linguistics generates significance on language learning. How linguistics can help to contribute to the solution of some disputable issues in language learning research.

4 grammar and language learning Two different approches to language learning 1. purely form-focused approches 2. purely meaning-focused approches 3. the compromise of the first two: focus on form The point in “Focus on form” is that although language learning should generally be meaning- focused and communication-oriented, it is still necessary and beneficial to focus on form occasionally.

5 Problems with “focus on form” One of them is: what elements of language are most amenable to focus on form. Two variables concerning the amenability of language elements to focus on form are the relevance of universal grammar (UG) and complexity of structures. Grammar has its due value in language learning. It is a pity that we do not know enough about grammar and we do not agree on what grammar is. That is, this is not a reliable model of grammar available. None of the formalist models, generative models, or functional models makes it clear that how grammar can be learned. So we need a better description of grammar, a better model acknowledged universally.

6 input and language learning Language input in the following ways: 1. spoken way 2. written way 3. interactive way 4. non-reciprocal way No one can deny the importance of input in language learning

7 Problems with language input What input should be provided to the learners? People can not reach an agreements. Their different views about the question: 1. authentic language material 2. comprehensible input The two developments of Krashen’s COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT A. premodified input B. interactively modified input B produces a better job. Problems encountered in the course of research on input 1. Theoretical research: the lack of linguistic analysis of different input.. 2. empirical research

8 interlanguage in language learning Output can equally promote language acquisition. This view is in line with the so- called constructivism. What is interlanguage? The features of interlanguge We need linguistics knowledge in the analysis of the learners’ interlanguage. Again, linguistics can play a part in language learning.

9 11.3 linguistics and language teaching The influence of linguistics on language teaching Linguistics influences language teaching at two levels: At the macro-level At the micro-level

10 the discourse-based view of language teaching Why the discourse-based view of language teaching? Its features: Discourse competence= communicative competence What is communicative competence Grammatical competence Pragmatic competence

11 CLT and TBLT are the products of discourse view of language. Learning language is to accomplishing tasks. Learning by doing. Two types of tasks: Real-world tasks Pedagogical tasks Why pedagogical tasks?

12 Criticism against the discourse-based view of language teaching

13 the universal grammar and language teaching The attempts of UG Its view of language learning Why this view? The implications of UG upon language teaching and learning The view of the proponents of UG: The criticism of the opponents of UG:

14 The influences of UG A. B. The evidence in support of UG, on the other hand, is not conclusive….

15 11.4 linguistics and syllabus design The importance of syllabus design It is a bridge between language teaching theory and language teaching practice. The most important part of syllabus design is….

16 a clarification of terms: syllabus and curriculum The reasons for the confusion of syllabus and curriculum The differentiation of the two by three experts 1. Stern 2. Nunan 3. Rodgers

17 Since 1980’s, the recognition of the importance curriculum development processes in language program design. The differences of the two, made by the author of this chapter 1. 2.

18 theoretical views behind syllabus design The process of syllabus design in foreign language teaching mainly includes selecting and grading what is to be taught. Why selection? How to select? What to select Grading comes after the selecting. How to grade? How linguistics plays its role in syllabus design? 1. 2.

19 types of syllabus A syllabus is designed depending on the designer’s view of language and view of language teaching and learning. The ever proposed syllabuses (syllabi) ….

20 (1) The structure syllabus Definition Its linguistics theory base Its features The popularity of it The shortcomings of it

21 (2) the situational syllabus It does not have a strong linguistic basis. It takes the view that language is used for communication. The aim of it How it selects and organize language items Aural-oral teaching method is the baby of this type of syllabus. How language is taught by the aural-oral method? The advantages of it in comparison with structural syllabus. But it is essentially a grammatical syllabus.

22 (3) The communicative syllabus Based on a notional-functional syllabus, it teaches the language needed to express and understand different kinds of functions, and emphasizes the process of communication. Ten components of a communicative syllabus, suggested by Yalden. Why a variety of communicative syllabus?

23 (4) The task-based syllabus what is a task-based syllabus? Definitions of task The differences of the three What is real-work tasks? What are pedgogical tasks? The relation of the three? The feature of the later definition of tasks?

24 qualities of a task by Skehan What a task is like? The latest definition A working definition of task by four scholars

25 The nature of TBLT Principles we should follow in designing tasks

26 components of syllabus What to include in a syllabus

27 current trends in syllabus design 1. The coexisting of the old and the new. 2. The emphasis on learning process. 3. The inclusion of non-linguistic objectives in syllabus. 4. The emergence of the multi-syllabus. a multi-syllabus combines the features of some syllabuses (syllabi) together. But it does not mean that the design of a multi-syllabus is the simple combination of elements from different types of syllabus. Rather, it is a matter of choice of priority.

28 Currently, the practice of adhering to one type of syllabus throughout the language program is rare. Why syllabus designers tend to design a multi- syllabus? 1 2

29 11.5 contrastive analysis and error analysis What is language transfer? Positive transfer? Negative transfer (interference)?

30 contrastive analysis (CA) The definition The goal The theoretical bases for CA (behavorism and structuralism)

31 The problems with CA Nowadays in the literature of SLA, the term “contrastive analysis” is gradually been replaced by “the study of cross- linguistic influence”.

32 error analysis Why the replacement of CA by error analysis? What is its claim? Errors are different from mistakes. Errors Mistakes The source of errors: Interlingual ones Intralingual ones The types of errors (the nature of errors)

33 The procedure of error analysis 1 2 3

34 The problems with Error Analysis 1 2 3

35 11.6 corpus linguistics and language teaching Corpus can help language teaching. Two most important factors in a corpus are the size and types of texts selected. Usually the uses will be made of the corpus decide the number and type of texts in a corpus.

36 types of corpora Four types of corpora/corpus

37 what uses can we make of corpora? From corpora, we can find very useful information about how language is actually used. Corpora provide five types of information:

38 11.7 summary The influence of linguistic theory upon language teaching at various stages: …. The applications and implications of linguistic theories are useful in the field of language teaching, but we should know two points clearly. 1 2


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