What do you wonder about when you see this picture? Inquiring Minds Want to Know
QUESTIONS Communicate Observe Define scope of a Problem Form a testable Question Research the known Clarify an expected Result Examine Results Perform Experiments (repeat to verify) Reflect on Findings Answering our Questions: the “Scientific Process” How do we “DO” science ? (list ideas) Place a check by any process you did during the insect collection project
Activities of Science Observations (empirical data) –See, Hear, Taste, Touch, and Smell Inferences –ideas, intuition, understanding - based on observations
Scientific Ideas Hypothesis (predictions) –A testable “If, Then, Because” prediction in science Example: suppose you discover that your car will not start. You may say, “If my car does not start, then there is not enough electricity because the battery is low." This is your first hypothesis. Theory (Hypothesis that is well tested) –A theory is a hypothesis which has been well tested and which best explains all data and predicts future activities.
Scientific Ideas Scientific Law –Description of how natural phenomenon will occur under certain circumstances (A law describes what will happen even if scientists aren’t yet able to explain why it is happening)
An Experiment: Testing a Hypothesis 1.Start with a “Hypothesis” –A testable “If, Then, Because” prediction of future events –Based on existing knowledge and observations 2.Define the “Control” and “Treatment” Groups in the Experiment a.An “Experimental Control” (the situation as you originally observed it) The control is the standard of comparison for an experiment b.Treatment Groups with one or more variables (potential changes to the control situation) Manipulated Variable – what is changed by the scientist (INDEPENDENT) Response Variable – what is measured (DEPENDENT) Constants – stay the same for the Control and the Treatments Uncontrolled – what cannot be controlled and might be different 3.A Well Planned Experiment Has Two Possible Outcomes: Hypothesis Supported Hypothesis Rejected
Reporting Scientific Experiments: The Scientific Method When reporting the results of an experiment, we follow the guidelines of the “Scientific Method” –State the Problem –Form the Hypothesis –Perform the Experiment –Observations – report the Data –Analyze the Data –State the Conclusions –Repeat to Verify
Scientific Process Diagram from “An Activity Model for Scientific Inquiry” William Harwood, The Science Teacher Vol. 71, No. 1, Pg. 44- 46, January 2004