Presentation on theme: "Unit: Ecology Chapter 11: Ecosystems and Biomes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit: Ecology Chapter 11: Ecosystems and Biomes Chapter 12: Interactions Within Ecosystems11.1:Ecosystems support life11.2: Matter cycles through ecosystems11.3: Energy flows through ecosystems11.4: Biomes contain many ecosystems
2 Concept Overview Temperature can vary from place to place 1. It surrounds all living things2. All living organisms need it3. It gives Earth most of its energyA. organismB. energyC. the oceanD. environmentE. the sun1. d, 2. b, 3. e
3 Living things depend on the environment Ecology: the scientific study of how organisms interact with their environment and all the other organisms that live in that environmentEcosystem: describes a particular environment and all the living things that are supported by itEx: pond, desertImportant: how the living parts of the ecosystem relate to the nonliving parts
4 Living things depend on the environment Pond:Biotic factors: living partswater, fish, plants in and around, animals feed on the plants, fish feed on microorganisms in the waterAbiotic factors: nonliving partsAir (carbon dioxide and oxygen), soil (nutrients), water, sunlight
5 Biotic factors interact with an ecosystem Living things depend upon an ecosystem, and also have an impact on the ecosystem in which they livePlants (biotic) affect biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystemsBiotic:An important source of food – help determine types of animals that can live thereAbiotic:affect temperature by blocking sunlightRoots hold soil in placePhotosynthesis - Carbon dioxide and oxygenAnimals (biotic) affect ecosystemsEx: beaver builds a dam which changes the flow of a river and affects the surrounding landscapeEx: herds of cattle can overgraze a grassland – causing soil erosion, and climate impactsEx: corals form giant reefs that provide food and shelter for marine organismsOther examples?
6 Many abiotic factors affect ecosystems Physical parts:You can see or feel: temperature, rainfall, water level, sunlight, etc.Chemical parts:Minerals and compounds in the soil and waterFresh/salty waterAbiotic factors determine what organisms the ecosystem will support
8 Abiotic Factor: Temperature Affects types of plants that will do will in an ecosystem, which determines the types of animals that can live thereEx: Rainforest: temperatures affect the plants that can grow and support a variety of monkeys, birds, and othersEx: musk oxen have at hick coat of fur for survival in very cold environments (-40F), water buffalo has a light coat better for warmer temperatures
9 Abiotic: Light Sunlight and temperature are related Sunlight is also used for energy: photosynthesisThe food from plants supports almost all other living things on EarthStrength and amount of sunlight are importantDesert: cacti can survive where sunlight is strongForest: mosses and ferns do well with less lightOcean Ecosystems: deeper water, less lightPhotosynthesis only performed to the first hundred meters below the surface
10 Euphotic (or photic) zone - the depth of the water in a lake or ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.
11 Abiotic: Soil Soil: mixture of small rock and minerals Organisms in the soil can break down the remains of dead plants and animalsThis decay provides important raw materials to living plants and animalsSoil types vary and affect plant growthLots of decaying, or organic, matter: holds water well and allows air to reach plant rootsSandy soil holds water poorlyClay soil: small packed particles, does not aerate wellMinerals
12 Abiotic: Water“All living things need water to carry out life processes”Plants need water for photosynthesisAnimals need water to digest food and release energy stored in the foodDesert Oasis: forms when underground water comes to the surfaceEcosystesm with lots of water can support a large number of different types of plants, which in turn support a variety of types of animalsRainforest vs desert* “the types and number of living things in a land ecosystem will always be related to the amount of fresh water available for its inhabitants”