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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Business Plug-In B5 Networks and Telecommunications.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Business Plug-In B5 Networks and Telecommunications."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Business Plug-In B5 Networks and Telecommunications

2 B5-2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Compare LANs, WANs, and MANs 2.List and describe the four components that differentiate networks 3.Compare the two types of network architectures

3 B5-3 LEARNING OUTCOMES 4.Explain topology and the different types found in networks 5.Describe TCP/IP along with its primary purpose 6.Identify the different media types found in networks

4 B5-4 Networks and Telecommunications Telecommunication system - enable the transmission of data over public or private networks Network - a communications, data exchange, and resource-sharing system created by linking two or more computers and establishing standards, or protocols, so that they can work together

5 B5-5 Network Basics The three types of networks include: –Local area network (LAN) –Wide area network (WAN) –Metropolitan area network (MAN)

6 B5-6 Network Basics

7 B5-7 Network Basics Networks are differentiated by the following: –Architecture: peer-to-peer, client/server –Topology: bus, star, ring, hybrid, wireless –Protocols: Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) –Media: coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic

8 B5-8 Architecture There are two primary types of architectures –Client/server network –Peer-to-peer (P2P) network

9 B5-9 Client/Server Network Client - a computer that is designed to request information from a server Server - a computer that is dedicated to providing information in response to external requests –Client/server network - model for applications in which the bulk of the back-end processing takes place on a server, while the front-end processing is handled by the clients

10 B5-10 Client/Server Computing Processing split between client & server machines

11 B5-11 Client/Server Networks Network operating system (NOS) - the operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users Packet-switching - occurs when the sending computer divides a message into a number of efficiently sized units called packets, each of which contains the address of the destination computer Router - an intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it onward toward its destination

12 B5-12 Peer-to-peer Network Peer-to-peer (P2P) network - any network without a central file server and in which all computers in the network have access to the public files located on all other workstations

13 B5-13 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networking P2P is form of distributed processing that links computers via the Internet or private networks, so that they can share processing, memory and storage. Each computer acts as both its own client and server. Examples : P2P Directory P2P Directory

14 B5-14 Client/Server Networks Client/Server network

15 B5-15 Client/Server Networks Worldwide router growth

16 B5-16 Trace a route - Visual Route You can see how many routers are between you and any other computer you can name or know the IP address for. Visual Route Try a far away website server such as

17 B5-17 Topology Network topology - refers to the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers and other network devices in a network –Bus topology –Star topology –Ring topology –Hybrid topology –Wireless

18 B5-18 Topology

19 B5-19 What’s a protocol? a human protocol and a computer network protocol: Hi Got the time? 2:00 TCP/IP connection req TCP/IP connection response Get time

20 B5-20 Protocols Protocol - a standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission. For two devices on a network to successfully communicate, they must both understand the same protocols. Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers

21 B5-21 The most popular network protocols used are: –Ethernet –Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol [TCP/IP] Protocols

22 B5-22 Ethernet Ethernet - a physical and data layer technology for LAN networking (100 Megabits/second)

23 B5-23 Ethernet Ethernet is a local area technology, with networks traditionally operating within a single building, connecting devices in close proximity.

24 B5-24 Ethernet Cable

25 B5-25 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private network

26 B5-26 TCP/IP standard for connectivity Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Allows any computer to communicate with any other (e.g., a PC and a Mac) Four layers to TCP/IP protocol Specifies: –How sending computer to package data as messages –How messages will be sent over the Internet –How receiving computer will reassemble message for processing

27 B5-27 Videos TCP/ IP animation

28 B5-28 Internet Protocol (IP) Addresses Every node in a network has a unique numeric address Form: Four (3 digit numbers) blocks separated by dots Example: (STFX IP address) Each block ranges from 0 to 255. Total number of possible IP addresses: 256 X 256 X 256 X 256 = 4,294,967,296 unique values!

29 B5-29 TCP/IP Applications SMTP [Simple Mail Transfer Protocol] (mailto Protocol) – first message was sent from one computer to another FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – A communication standard to transfer files over the Internet Telnet (Telnet Protocol) – remote login Internet Relay Chat (IRC Protocol) –Communication via chat Usenet (news Protocol) Web ( HTTP Protocol)

30 B5-30 TCP/IP Applications TCP/IP applications –File transfer protocol (FTP) –Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) –Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) –Simple network management Protocol (SNMP)

31 B5-31 The Browser (client) and The Server The original static model of Web Serving: The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) enables web pages to be requested and transferred between the browser and server Web Browser Web Server HTTP Request Web Page File System

32 B5-32 What Is the Internet? The Internet is a worldwide network of networks that uses the client/server model of computing and based on TCP/IP protocol. Using the Internet, any computer (or computing appliance) can communicate with any other computer connected to the Internet throughout the world. The Internet has no central management. The Internet is used for communications, and to retrieve a vast store of information. It has developed into an effective way for individuals and organizations to offer information and products through a Web of graphical user interfaces and easy-to-use links worldwide. Major Internet capabilities include , Usenet, LISTSERV, chatting and instant messaging, Telnet, FTP, and the World Wide Web.

33 B5-33 Internet network architecture

34 B5-34 The Internet connectivity

35 B5-35 Internet Domain Names - Domain names are used because people have difficulty remembering IP numbers Example: is domain name for the IP address:

36 B5-36 Internet Technology Based on client/server technology Client computers –access services and information available on server computers –Use software to access server computers Web browsers (Netscape, Internet Explorer) software (Eudora, Outlook) Server Computers –They are programs that provide documents to requesting browsers. They are slave programs. –Provide responses to browser requests, either existing documents or dynamically built documents

37 B5-37 Internet Capabilities ( various Internet protocols) –Person -to-person messaging; document sharing Usenet Newsgroups –Discussion groups using electronic bulletin boards List Servers –Discussion groups using list servers Chat Rooms –Interactive conversations –Instant Messaging Telnet –Working on one computer while logged on to another FTP –Transfer of files from computer to computer World Wide Web –Display, format and retrieve information using hyperlinks

38 INFO135: Management Information Systems INFORMATION X Uniform Resource Locators  The URL  Uniform Resource Locators are used to identify document (resources) on the internet  URL Format: Best understood through the following example: Application Layer ProtocolHost/DomainDocument Path and Name

39 B5-39 Voice over IP (VoIP) Voice over IP (VoIP) - uses TCP/IP technology to transmit voice calls over long-distance telephone lines

40 B5-40 Media Network transmission media - refers to the various types of media used to carry the signal between computers –Wire media (guided) –Wireless media (unguided)

41 B5-41 Wire Media Wire media - transmission material manufactured so that signals will be confined to a narrow path and will behave predictably Three most commonly used types include: 1.Twisted-pair wiring 2.Coaxial cable 3.Fiber optic (or optical fiber)

42 B5-42 Wire Media

43 B5-43 Wireless Media Wireless media - natural parts of the Earth’s environment that can be used as physical paths to carry electrical signals

44 B5-44 E-Business Network

45 B5-45 E-Business Network Virtual private network (VPN) - a way to use the public telecommunication infrastructure (e.g., Internet) to provide secure access to an organization’s network Valued-added network (VAN) - a private network, provided by a third party, for exchanging information through a high capacity connection

46 B5-46 Videos Computer tour works/23-computer-tour-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/howstuff works/23-computer-tour-video.htm Internet Basics /internet-basics-videos.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/computer /internet-basics-videos.htm

47 B5-47 LAN Local Area Networks: Connecting two Computers RZWMcc&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_u3hN RZWMcc&feature=related

48 B5-48 Videos How a Computer Network Works computer network topologies Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology

49 B5-49 Video Computer Networking Tutorial 1: Introduction to Networking Computer Networking Tutorial 2: Networking Basics Computer Networking Tutorial Network Topology Computer Networking Tutorial OSI Model Physical Layer Computer Networking Tutorial OSI Model Data Link Layer Computer Networking Tutorial OSI Model Network and Transport Layer


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