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Developing entrepreneurial capabilities in the curriculum Richard Tunstall, Senior Lecturer in Enterprise Glamorgan Business School.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing entrepreneurial capabilities in the curriculum Richard Tunstall, Senior Lecturer in Enterprise Glamorgan Business School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing entrepreneurial capabilities in the curriculum Richard Tunstall, Senior Lecturer in Enterprise Glamorgan Business School

2 Agenda Theory Enterprise Education & Reflective Learning Context Enterprise Courses at Glamorgan Practice Reflective Activities Action Applying activities in your own context

3 How can one analyse and teach acts whose nature is not yet known, and whose effectiveness relies to a considerable degree on the difficulties others have in foreseeing them? (Baumol, 1983, P.30) Small Business Management or Entrepreneurship? About or For Entrepreneurship? (Levie, 1999) Entrepreneurial Learning (Rae, 1999, Cope & Watts, 2000) or Enterprise Education (Pittaway, 2005, Gibb, 2003) ? Complexities and uncertainties necessitating an entrepreneurial response affect all kinds of people in many different aspects of life, not just in the business environment. (Gibb, 2002, p.24) What is Enterprise Education?

4 Opportunities to develop: Business & Project Planning Awareness of the importance of enterprise Understanding of theory Generic business skills such as presentation & teamwork Personal goals and career planning Enterprise Education in the Curriculum

5 Entrepreneurship, Business Planning Traditional accredited modules, at the Business School Make an Impact Week Business Planning competition, funded by School and sponsors Business Growth Accredited module, building on Make an Impact Week Accredited Work Placements/Projects in SMEs Advanced Certificate in Enterprise Optional module delivered pan-university at Level 1, 2 & 3 Curriculum Activities at Glamorgan

6 Advanced Certificate in Enterprise developed to consider: -Personal Entrepreneurial Potential -Holistic Business Planning -Business Growth & Development -Entrepreneurial Leadership and Teamwork Delivered in over 10 universities in 6 European Countries Delivered through keynote presentations, videos, games (with prizes), interactive activities, team activities and workbooks Enterprise Awareness Courses at Glamorgan

7 Activity Context Students introduced to theory and examples of entrepreneurial behaviour Use tools on case studies of entrepreneurs Use same tools to consider personal entrepreneurial potential (reflection-on-action (Schön (1983)) Go on to take part in team creativity and business planning activities Encouraged to reflect on overall process and consider on whether entrepreneurship may be relevant to future personal development and career

8 Critical Reflection in enterprise education Opportunities to develop: Recollections of experiences Self-reflection on entrepreneurial potential Consideration of application of theory to practice Personal goals and plans for the future Doing Experience Reflecting Reflective observation Theorising Abstract Conceptualisation Planning Active Experimentation Based on: Kolb, Honey & Mumford

9 Gibb (2003) Athletic Entrepreneurial Graduate Holistic Enterprise Education? You or Me? Globalised World of Uncertainty / Complexity Emotional Intelligence Conative Affective and Cognitive Learning Trust building Relationship Arm (Know Who) Entrepreneurial Organisation Design and Development Visions and Feel for Way of Life Project Management Ideas Harvesting and Evaluation Entrepreneurial Management in different contexts Capacity for Experiential Ingestion (tacit knowledge) Holistic Management Arm (Know How) Entrepreneurship Values Strategically Intuitive Gut Rich Growth of Entrepreneurial Abilities

10 Confidence & Self-Belief Personal Theory Known Capabilities Active Learning Relationships Ambitious Goals Values & motivation Achievement The entrepreneurial learning model (Rae, D, The Entrepreneurial Spirit) Entrepreneurial Learning

11 Activity 1 a)Complete the Entrepreneurial Traits Wheel b) Using the results from the Wheels, evaluate your skills using the table provided For each factor you should justify your reasoning using examples to support your statements.

12 Entrepreneurial Traits Wheel Based on: Welsh Assembly Government (2005)

13 Entrepreneurial Traits Wheel Based on: Welsh Assembly Government (2005)

14 Entrepreneurial Traits Internal Locus of Control - You control your own destiny, nothing else has an impact Risk-Taking - You are prepared to take on risks that others might avoid Autonomy - You value individuality, freedom and responsibility Need for Achievement - You are driven by socially-recognised achievement, not necessarily just financial rewards Self-Confidence - You are personally motivated and sure of your own abilities Innovation - You identify and exploit opportunities Vision & Flair - You can visualise or know your personal goals and feel you have the ability to realise them. Pro-activity - You seek out opportunities and make change happen, you dont rely on luck or other people.

15 Activity 2 a) Identify your personal skills using the Entrepreneurial Skills Wheel b)Using the results from the Wheels, evaluate your traits using the table provided For each factor you should justify your reasoning using examples to support your statements.

16 Entrepreneurial Skills ConfidenceMotivationAspirationDeterminationCompetitiveness Problem Solving Ideas Generation OpportunistInnovationWorking with others Overcome difficulties PersuasionPresentationCommunicationPlanning Managing Resource Decision Making ResearchManaging RiskGoal Setting

17 Entrepreneurial Skills Wheel Based on: Welsh Assembly Government (2005)

18 Entrepreneurial Skills Wheel Based on: Welsh Assembly Government (2005)

19 Entrepreneurial Skills Wheel Mind Set Creativity Working With People Managing Resources Based on: Welsh Assembly Government (2005)

20 Activity 3 - Life Path Chart Primary School Secondary school Made lots of friends Really enjoyed studying Got involved with clubs & societies Didnt feel valued Didnt like being pushed around Set up my own society Society wins national award Set up my own club Receive achievement award Not sure what to do next Fear of future Dont like working in IT No potential for progression Get great job Move to London

21 Activity 3 (continued) b)Write down your thoughts about your critical incidents, considering the following: - What was it that made you feel positive or enthusiastic? - What upset you or got you down? - What stage are you at now in your life? - What do you feel positive about? - What is holding you back?

22 Activity 4 Based on the results from the previous activities how might you develop an entrepreneurial career? Consider the following factors: How you can overcome your weaknesses Exploit your strengths From the critical life path how will you avoid demotivation and seek motivation? Considering your Strengths and Weaknesses are there any skills you feel you need to achieve or develop to help you achieve your goals? Were your findings from the activities what you expected? In summary, your response should clearly state whether you would follow an entrepreneurial career now, in the future or not at all. Justify your answer.

23 Applying Activities in Your Own Context Activities are a way in for students to begin critiquing theory on entrepreneurial behaviour Can be used to analyse case studies of entrepreneurs Provide a framework for students to appraise skills and personal beliefs before and after a enterprise programme/experience Provides opportunities for goal setting and discussion of personal values How can you contribute to enterprise in the curriculum? How could you relate this to extra-curricular activities? What opportunities would this create for student development? Note that it is important to provide reassurance of confidentiality for participants personal reflections

24 References Baumol, W.J. (1983) Towards operational models of entrepreneurship in Ronen, J. (ed), Entrepreneurship. Lexington, M.A : Lexington Books. Cope, J. and Watts, G (2000), Learning by doing – An exploration of experience, critical incidents and reflection in entrepreneurial learning International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 6, No.3 Gibb, A. (2002) In pursuit of a new enterprise and entrepreneurship paradigm for learning: creative destruction, new values, new ways of doing things and new combinations of knowledge International Journal of Management Reviews, 4 (3) pp Kolb, D.A, (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Pittaway, L. (2005) Stimulating Entrepreneurial Learning: Assessing the Utility of Experiential Learning Designs Management Learning. Rae, D. (1999) The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Leaning to Unlock Value, Blackhall, Dubin Schon, D.A. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey Bass

25 Website: Questions?

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