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Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Background to Research Ethics Aim To provide an overview as to why research ethics is high on the agenda.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Background to Research Ethics Aim To provide an overview as to why research ethics is high on the agenda."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Background to Research Ethics Aim To provide an overview as to why research ethics is high on the agenda

2 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Background The Law - Driving at 70 mph – Formal Rules Ethics & Morals – Informal Rules Students conducting research abide by Formal Rules – Human Rights, Data Protection Act etc Informal Rules – Ethical and Moral Behaviour Consult University Ethics Policy Why is there a University Ethics Policy?

3 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood The Nuremberg Code Nazi concentration camps Abhorrent scientific research Including –Malaria experiments, bone transplantation experiments, starvation experiments Nuremberg Code 1947 for ethical research

4 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Table 1 The Nuremberg Code 1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. 2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature. 3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment. 4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury. 5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disability injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects. 6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment. 7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death. 8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. 9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible. 10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject. University of Gloustershire (2005) Abridged From: Katz, J (1972 )

5 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Which are important for Hospitality, Leisure, Sport, Education and Tourism Research? 1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential 2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature. 4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury. 9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.

6 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Historical Case Study - Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male Recruited to receive free treatment Never told they were a research participant Aim of research – would a person be better off not receiving treatment for syphilis Never told they had syphilis Therefore never advised syphilis was contagious Never given antibiotics when they became available in 1947

7 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Questions? Were the participants fully informed about the aim of the research? Would they be at risk physically or mentally? Was the research necessary following the introduction of penicillin in 1947 Were they denied their rights?

8 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 1 - Blue Eyed/Brown Eyed Experiment - Social Science Example (A) Primary school children – 2 groups 1 blue-eyed children 2 brown or green-eyed children Blue-eyed children – unintelligent, paper cups at water-fountain – Brown-eyed children – leaders

9 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 1 - Blue Eyed/Brown Eyed Experiment - Social Science Example (A) Questions Were children fully informed? Could children understand research objectives? Were the children at risk physically or mentally? Could the child withdraw from the research if they did not like it?

10 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 2 Milgram – Obedience to Authority Social Science Example (B) Recruitment – Advertisement/Direct Mail Inducement - $4.50 for 1 hours work Advised research objective = Effects of Punishment on Learning Role of Learner Role of Teacher Questions & Answer Session Shock treatment

11 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 2 Milgram – Obedience to Authority Social Science Example (B) s_authority_f.html

12 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 2 Milgram – Obedience to Authority Social Science Example (B) Outcomes All 40 participants (teachers) gave electric shocks 5/40 stopped at shocks of 300 volts (Intense Shock) after the Learner pounded the wall 14 gave shocks of 450 volts (XXX level) 3 participants had seizures Others sweated, laughed, bit their fingers

13 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 2 Milgram – Obedience to Authority Social Science Example (B) Questions Did the participants consent to the actual research taking place – obedience of an authority figure? Did they need to be deceived regarding shock treatments Filmed without consent –should they have been informed? Was there physical or mental risk? Could they refuse to go on?

14 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Similar Ethical Elements shown in Social Studies Case Studies 1.Informed Consent 2.Research results knowledge for the good of society 3.Risk – mental or physical 4.Chance for participants to withdraw 5.Confidentiality and anonymity

15 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 3 – Laud Humphries Tearoom Research Social Science Example (C) Tearoom Research = 2 studies 1.Impersonal Homosexual Behaviour in Tearooms 2 Health Survey

16 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Case Study 3 – Laud Humphries Tearoom Research Social Science Example (C) Questions Using Ethical Elements 1.Informed Consent 2.Research results knowledge for the good of society 3.Risk – mental or physical 4.Chance for participants to withdraw 5.Confidentiality and anonymity

17 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Six key principles of ethical research that the ESRC expects to be addressed, whenever applicable: 1.Research should be designed, reviewed and undertaken to ensure integrity and quality 2.Research staff and subjects must be informed fully about the purpose, methods and intended possible uses of the research, what their participation in the research entails and what risks, if any, are involved. Some variation is allowed in very specific and exceptional research contexts for which detailed guidance is provided in the policy Guidelines 3.The confidentiality of information supplied by research subjects and the anonymity of respondents must be respected 4.Research participants must participate in a voluntary way, free from any coercion 5.Harm to research participants must be avoided 6.The independence of research must be clear, and any conflicts of interest or partiality must be explicit Economic & Social Research Council (2005) p. 1

18 Dr. A. J. Kenyon & Dr. E. H. Wood Conclusion Conducting ethical research is essential Lessons have been learnt from past medical and social research Codes and Policies are in place Future research activities must follow the appropriate guidelines.


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