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AAA 3102 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Lecture 2 The Research Process & Literature Review.

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1 AAA 3102 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Lecture 2 The Research Process & Literature Review

2 T HE RESEARCH PROCESS Research is an extremely cyclic process. It starts with identify the particular field, a problem, design, gathered and analyzed the data and ends with a solution to the problem In scientific method, there is steps and orderly procedures in conducting research Likewise, there are ethical issues that researchers have to observe in conducting research

3 T YPICAL RESEARCH PROCESS Problem identificationDiscovery and selection Conclusion Literature reviewwriting report Research designData analysis Population and Data processing sampling Data collection

4 S TEPS IN CONDUCTING RESEARCH Problem identification and selection Literature review Research design Population and sampling Data collection Data processing Data analysis Conclusion and writing report Sharing of research findings

5 The major steps in research need to be followed as listed – TERTIB For example: - we cannot collect data if have not identified the population of study - we cannot analyze the data if the data have not been collected - we can still do the literature review after data had been collected However, it is good to think about data analyze at the beginning of research

6 Every step in the research process must be given equal emphasis Researchers must have knowledge and skills for every step As stated in the previous lecture, identifying and knowing the problem is the most important beginning in the research process From research problem, comes research questions – the summary of problem stated in question form

7 Research questions provide research with the width, depth and boundary of the problem Research questions will be used to formulate the specific objectives of the research Example of a research problem: “At present, there are many children that are not taking care of their elderly parents”

8 Example of research questions to the research problem: 1. Why children are not taking care of their parents nowadays? 2. What kinds of children are neglecting their parents? 3. What are factors that make the children refuse to take care of their parents? 4. How to make the children take care of their parents?

9 Example of general objective of the research: - To find out the reasons why the present generations are not willing to take care of their elderly parents and to suggest the ways of making them realize of their obligation to take care of their elderly parents

10 Example of specific objectives of the research: 1. To find out the reasons for the present generations not taking care of their elderly parents 2. To identify the types of children that are neglecting their parents 3. To list the factors that make the children refuse to take care of their parents 4. To suggest the ways on how to the make the children take care of their parents

11 E THICS IN R ESEARCH Ethics refers to the a code of conduct or expected social norm while conducting research (Sekaran, 2003) Moral principles of right and wrong Research should be designed, reviewed and undertaken to ensure integrity and quality The confidentiality of information supplied by research subjects and the anonymity of respondents must be respected

12 Research staff and subjects must be informed fully about the purpose, methods and intended possible uses of the research, what their participation in the research entails and what risks if any, are involved Research participants must participate in a voluntary way, free from any coercion Harm to participants must be avoided The independence of the research must be clear Confirming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group

13 Anonymity – cannot identify a given response with a particular respondent Tell the shortcomings of your research Do not alter or change the data collected Write your report with honesty and openness Protect the right and interest of those involved in the research Know what is acceptable, the limits and consequences of research

14 L ITERATURE REVIEW (LR) Singleton, et. al (1988) noted that LR must make clear the theoretical context of the problem under investigation and how it has been studied by others The idea is to cite relevant literatures in the process of presenting the underlying theoretical and methodological rational for the research Babbie (2004) stated LR is concerned with what others said about the topic, what theories address it and what they say, and what previous research exist

15 LR is a step and process in knowing what others have done about the topic, how they did it, what theory they had used, what are their findings, and who are involved It is an ongoing process, from idea development, problem selection to writing of research report It is a survey of recent, published scholarly articles, books and other publications or write-ups relevant to the research topic

16 T HE IMPORTANCE OF LR Can know what has been done on the research problem or topic Can identify the related theory that had been used Can know the variables that had been studied and how they were operationalized Can help make research more focused Help to refine research problem and question questions

17 Can help make research topic more exact Enhance the understanding of the topic Help in building the research framework Help in refining research design Help in formulating valid research hypotheses Help in development of questions for research instrument Help in data analysis procedures

18 S OURCES OF LR Scholarly journals published by professional associations, societies, universities, research institutions etc. Scholarly texts book, yearbook series Scholarly conference papers, proceedings Dissertations, theses, academic project reports Government, NGO and society reports Indexes and abstracts from data bases Periodicals such us magazines and newspapers

19 W HAT TO LOOK FOR IN LR Statement of problem, research questions, objectives of the study and hypotheses Operational definition of variables and how they were measured Respondents of the study, population and sample size, unit of analysis and data collection method Research findings, conclusion and suggestion for further research Author(s), title of article or book, name of publication, year published, publisher and page number

20 As a guide look for: * up-to-date, new or recent materials – within the last 5 years * relevancy – the information is suitable and directly related to the research topic * comparative quality – is the material for scholarly work or meant for general public * make a note – the material is suitable for theory, method or variable of the research topic

21 W RITING AND CITATION STYLES OF LR There are proper ways of quoting, citing and referring the works of others This is to avoid plagiarism – the most serious crime in academic work In social science, normally the APA format and style are adopted. Every researcher needs to follow and observe these format guidelines when writing research proposal, research report, seminar papers and journal articles

22 See you in Tutorial sessions

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