Presentation on theme: "Feedback Dr Simon Hall Introduction to self Introduction to each other"— Presentation transcript:
1 Feedback Dr Simon Hall Introduction to self Introduction to each other Key challenges for group
2 Johari WindowDisclosure/Feedback model of awareness known as the Johari Window, named after Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham. It was first used in an information session at the Western Training Laboratory in Group Development in 1955.Some Theory…
3 Johari Window Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Open Blind Unknown to OthersHiddenUnknownHighlight the border between Open and Blind.Open: The open area is that part of our conscious self - our attitudes, behaviour, motivation, values, way of life - of which we are aware and which is known to others. We move within this area with freedom. We are "open books".Blind: There are things about ourselves which we do not know, but that others can see more clearly; or things we imagine to be true of ourselves for a variety of reasons but that others do not see at all. When others say what they see (feedback), in a supportive, responsible way, and we are able to hear it; in that way we are able to test the reality of who we are and are able to grow.Hidden: Our hidden area cannot be known to others unless we disclose it. There is that which we freely keep within ourselves, and that which we retain out of fear. The degree to which we share ourselves with others (disclosure) is the degree to which we can be known.Unknown: We are more rich and complex than that which we and others know, but from time to time something happens – is felt, read, heard, dreamed - something from our unconscious is revealed. Then we"know" what we have never "known" before.So If we ask for feedback then our blind spots are revealed to us.
4 Johari WindowOpen: The open area is that part of our conscious self - our attitudes, behaviour, motivation, values, way of life - of which we are aware and which is known to others. We move within this area with freedom. We are "open books".
5 Johari WindowHidden: Our hidden area cannot be known to others unless we disclose it. There is that which we freely keep within ourselves, and that which we retain out of fear. The degree to which we share ourselves with others (disclosure) is the degree to which we can be known.
6 Johari WindowBlind: There are things about ourselves which we do not know, but that others can see more clearly; or things we imagine to be true of ourselves for a variety of reasons but that others do not see at all. When others say what they see (feedback), in a supportive, responsible way, and we are able to hear it; in that way we are able to test the reality of who we are and are able to grow.
7 Johari Window Unknown: We are more rich and complex than that which we and others know, butfrom time to time something happens – isfelt, read, heard, dreamed - something fromour unconscious is revealed. Then we"know" what we have never "known" before.
8 Examples Positive and Negative? Feelings and Thoughts? Insight and Reflection?Learning and Planning?Facilitate Change?Think back to a situation when we received feedback.Ask for someone to volunteer their experience.What happened?How did you feel?What did you think?So was it positive or negative?Did you gain a new insight?Did you reflect, Learn and Plan?Did anything change?
9 Skills Active Listening Response to Cues Open Questions Challenge SummarisingReflectionA Consultation?Can we agree the meaning of the following terms?Active Listening- encouraging the participants contributionResponse to Cues- to respond appropriately to important, significant (in terms of what emerges afterwards) cuesOpen Questions- (opposite of closed), “tell me more, describe the situation…”Challenge- who, what, where, when, how questions.Summarising- “So if I understand you…”Reflection- The learning cycle- To do, think, learn and plan…“Unconditional Positive Regard”
10 Pendleton Clarify any points of information/fact Ask the learner what s/he did well – ensure that they identify the strengths of the performance and do not stray into weaknesses.Discuss what went well, adding your own observationsAsk the learner to say what went less well and what they would do differently next time.Discuss what went less well, adding your own observations and recommendationsPendleton, Schofield, Tate and Havelock (1984)Clarify the factsWhat went well?What went less well and what will be done differently next time?
11 SET-GO Group members to base their feedback on: 1. What I Saw descriptive, specific, non - judgmentalFacilitator to prompt if necessary with either or both of:2. What Else did you seewhat happened next in descriptive terms3. What do you Think John?reflecting back to the doctor on the video who is then given an opportunity toacknowledge and problem solve himselfFacilitator then to get the whole group to problem solve1. Can we clarify what Goal we would like to achieveoutcome-based approach2. Any Offers of how we should get theresuggestions, alternatives to be rehearsed if possibleFrom: Kurtz SM, Silverman JD, Draper J (1998) Teaching and learning Communication skills in Medicine. Radcliffe Medical Press (Oxford)Silverman JD, Kurtz SM, Draper J (1998) Skills for Communicating with Patients. Radcliffe Medical Press (Oxford)Describe specificallyThink about the problemIdentify the GoalThink about the solution
12 Do Give it with Care Let the recipient invite it Encourage self-criticismBe specificOutline the positiveAvoid evaluative judgementsMake the feedback actionableBalance the positive and negativeBalance the timing of the positives and negativesChoose the right time and placeTo be useful, feedback requires the giver to want to help, not hurt the other personFeedback is most effective when the receiver has invited the comments. Doing so indicates that the receiver is ready to hear the feedback and give that person an opportunity to specify areas of interest/concernPeople are willing to accept the criticism when they have recognised their own strengths and weaknesses. Start by encouraging them to appraise themselves and then build on their own insightsGood feedback deals with particular incidents and behaviour. Making vague or woolly statements is of little value. The most helpful feedback is concrete and covers the area of interest specified by the receiver.By making feedback constructive you will be helping the receiver to find out what needs to be done rather than just telling them what they are doing wrong. Always look for areas of improvement rather than what went wrong.The most useful feedback describes behaviours without value labels such as ’irresponsible’, ‘unprofessional’, or even ‘good’ or ‘bad’ If the recipient asks you for a judgement, be sure to state that this is your opinion.To be most useful, feedback should concern behaviour that can be changed by the receiver. Feedback concerning matters outside the control of the receiver is less useful and often causes resentment.Positive feedback on its own allows no room for improvement and negative feedback alone is discouraging .Always begin and end with a positive, for each point you are making. Avoid giving all the positive points at the beginning or end of the whole feedback session. This allows the receiver to hear a more balanced view.The most useful feedback is given at a time and place that make it easy for the receiver to hear it e.g. away from other people and distractions. It should be given sufficiently close to the particular event being discussed for it to be fresh in mind. Enough time should be allocated to explore any issues raised.
13 Don’t Deny the other persons feelings Be vague Accuse Take for granted the person has understoodBring in third partiesBe negativeBe destructiveBe judgementalBring up behaviours that the person cannot helpBe overly impressedBe aggressive
14 A Mnemonic Approach Balance Change Description Exact Sensitive to the person and their learning agendaBalanceOf positives and negatives as per Pendleton.Credits to exceed Withdrawals to avoid an “Emotional Overdraft”ChangeTo facilitate Change by Active Listening, responding to Cues to and providing Challenge.To identify their problem and, through skill rehearsal, to work on their solution.As per SET GODescriptionFeedback based on fact and not on opinion throughout.ExactFeedback focusing on specific areas throughout.Be sensitive (Unconditional Positive Regard)Be balanced (vs an Emotional Overdraft)Through Cues and Challenge to facilitate Change.Be descriptive (vs Value Judgements)Be specificRehearsing their solution to their problem