Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future 2010 1.Introduction 2. Units and GDP Relationships 3.Definitions N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD,

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future 2010 1.Introduction 2. Units and GDP Relationships 3.Definitions N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD,"— Presentation transcript:

1 NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future Introduction 2. Units and GDP Relationships 3.Definitions N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation 1

2 Aim of Energy Section To review historic uses of Energy Provide basis for understanding Units and Definitions An overview of Global Energy Resources Barriers to Conservation Overview of Conservation Opportunities Brief Review of UK Energy Supply and Demand Issues of Electricity Supply and Fuel Mix An introduction to basic thermodynamics and opportunities arising from working with rather than against thermodynamics Energy Balance Tables NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future

3 Some Administrative Matters All the Handouts and other information, including these PowerPoint Presentations may be accessed from the Energy Home Page (on the INTERNET) 3

4 In UK each person is consuming energy at a rate of 5kW In USA it is 10 kW 1/20th or Worlds Population consumes 25% of all energy In Europe it is 5.7 kW Globally it is around 2kW ENERGY Consumption > Carbon Dioxide > Global Warming 1.1 INTRODUCTION 4

5 Year Energy Consumption Nuclear Fusion ?? 5

6 How much Carbon Dioxide is each person emitting as a result of the energy they use? In UK 9 tonnes per annum. What does 9 tonnes look like? Equivalent of 5 Hot Air Balloons! To combat Global Warming we must reduce CO 2 by 60% i.e. to 2 Hot Air Balloons How far does one have to drive to emit the same amount of CO 2 as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles 1.1 INTRODUCTION 6

7 ENERGY PHYSICAL TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL POLITICAL Fuel Poverty Issues UEA Heat Pump 7 Energy must be studied from a multi-disciplinary standpoint

8 Peter Chapmans book – Fuels Paradise written in 1970s some figures are out of date concepts still relevant providing an alternative view on energy where the unit of currency is linked to the unit of energy

9 In 1974 Bramber Parish Council decided to go without street lighting for three days as a saving. ( this was during a critical power period during a Miners Strike). Afterwards, the parish treasurer was pleased to announce that, as a result electricity to the value of £11.59 had been saved. He added, however, that there was a bill of £18.48 for switching the electricity off and another of £12.00 for switching it on again. It had cost the council £18.89 to spend three days in darkness. An example of where saving resources and money are not the same 9

10 From the Independent 29th January 1996 similar warning have been issued in press for this winter What is wrong with this title? 10

11 No shortage of energy on the planet Potential shortage of energy in the form to which we have become accustomed. Fossil fuels FUEL CRISIS. 1.2 THE ENERGY CRISIS - The Non-Existent Crisis 11

12 ~ 15% of energy derived from food used to collect more food to sustain life. + energy used for making clothing, tools, shelter Early forms of non-human power:- 1) fire 2) animal power 1.3 HISTORICAL USE OF ENERGY up to 1800 OTHER ENERGY FORMS HARNESSED 1) Turnstile type windmills of Persians 2) Various water wheels (7000+ in UK by 1085) 3) Steam engines (?? 2nd century AD by Hero) 4) Tidal Mills (e.g. Woodbridge, Suffolk 12th Century) 12

13 LONDON - late 13th /early 14th Century Shortage of timber for fires in London Area Import of coal from Newcastle by sea for poor Major environmental problems -high sulphur content of coal Crisis resolved - The Black Death. 1.4 The First Fuel Crisis 13

14 UK - Late 15th/early 16th century Shortage of timber - prior claim for use in ship-building Use of coal became widespread -even eventually for rich Chimneys appeared to combat problems of smoke Environmental lobbies against use Interruption of supplies - miner's strike Major problems in metal industries led to many patents to produce coke from coal (9 in 1633 alone) 1.5 The Second Fuel Crisis:- 14

15 Problems in Draining Coal Mines and Transport of coal > threatened a third Fuel Crisis in Middle/late 18th Century Overcome by Technology and the invention of the steam engine by Newcommen. a means of providing substantial quantities of mechanical power which was not site specific (as was water power etc.). NEWCOMMEN's Pumping Engine was only 0.25% efficient 1.6 Problems in Draining Coal Mines WATT improved the efficiency to 1.0% 15

16 Current STEAM turbines achieve 40% efficiency, 1.6 Current Limitations further improvements are LIMITED PRIMARILY BY PHYSICAL LAWS NOT BY OUR TECHNICAL INABILITY TO DESIGN AND BUILD THE PERFECT MACHINE. Coal fired power stations: ultimate efficiency ~ 45% even with IGCC CCGT Stations are currently 47-51% efficient > ultimately ~ 55%. 16

17 Explosive sports - e.g. weight lifting 500 W for fraction of second Sustained output of fit athlete --> W Normal mechanical energy output << 50 W Heat is generated by body to sustain body at pre-determined temperature:- Thermal Comfort approx.: 50 W per sq. metre of body area when seated 80 W per sq. metre of body area when standing. 1.7 Energy Capabilities of Man 17

18 Early Wind Power Devices C 700 AD in Persia used for grinding corn pumping water evidence suggests that dry valleys were Dammed to harvest wind 18

19 NUCLEAR CHEMICAL - fuels:- gas, coal, oil etc. MECHANICAL - potential and kinetic ELECTRICAL HEAT - high temperature for processes - low temperature for space heating All forms of Energy may be measured in terms of Joules (J), BUT SOME FORMS OF ENERGY ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS 1.8 Forms of Energy 19

20 Energy does not usually come in the form needed: convert it into a more useful form. All conversion of energy involve some inefficiency:- Physical Constraints (Laws of Thermodynamics) can be very restrictive MASSIVE ENERGY WASTE. This is nothing to do with our technical incompetence. The losses here are frequently in excess of 40% 1.9 ENERGY CONVERSION 20

21 Technical Limitations (e.g. friction, aero-dynamic drag in turbines etc.) can be improved, but losses here are usually less than 20%, and in many cases around 5%. Some forms of energy have low physical constraints converted into another form with high efficiency (>90%). e.g. mechanical electrical mechanical/electrical/chemical > heat Other forms can only be converted at low efficiency e.g. heat > mechanical power - the car! or in a power station 1.9 ENERGY CONVERSION 21

22 USE MOST APPROPRIATE FORM OF ENERGY FOR NEED IN HAND. e.g. AVOID using ELECTRICITY for LOW TEMPERATURE SPACE heating Hot Water Heating in UK, Germany, India, China but using electricity in Norway, Canada. Colombia, France is sensible Cooking (unless it is in a MicroWave). 1.9 ENERGY CONVERSION 22

23 HEATING - space and hot water demand ( 80%+ of domestic use excluding transport) LIGHTING COOKING ENTERTAINMENT REFRIGERATION TRANSPORT INDUSTRY - process heating/ drying/ mechanical power IT IS INAPPROPRIATE TO USE ELECTRICITY FOR SPACE HEATING 1.10 WHAT DO WE NEED ENERGY FOR? 23

24 HIGH GRADE: - Chemical, Electrical, Mechanical MEDIUM GRADE: - High Temperature Heat LOW GRADE: - Low Temperature Heat All forms of Energy will eventually degenerate to Low Grade Heat May be physically (and technically) of little practical use - i.e. we cannot REUSE energy which has been degraded - except via a Heat Pump GRADES OF ENERGY 24

25 Energy Conservation is primarily concerned with MINIMISING the degradation of the GRADE of ENERGY. (i.e. use HIGH GRADE forms wisely - not for low temperature heating!!). To a limited extent LOW GRADE THERMAL ENERGY may be increased moderately in GRADE to Higher Temperature Heat using a HEAT PUMP. However, unlike the recycling of resources like glass, metals etc., where, in theory, no new resource is needed, we must expend some extra energy to enhance the GRADE of ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION 25

26 NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future Units and GDP Relationships N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation 26

27 2.0 UNITS of Energy: INTRODUCTION How much Energy is there in different fuels? MegaJoulesYogurtskWh Yogurt85000 calories (85kcal) cubic meter gas litre petrol litre diesel litre LPG litre heating oil

28 How much CO 2 is given of by different fuels ? MJkg CO 2 CO 2 to provide 1 kWh of useful heat Gas39.6 MJ/m kg/m – 0.26 kg Petrol32.9 MJ/litre2.315 kg/litre Diesel35.7 MJ/litre2.630 kg/litre LPG25.0 MJ/litre1.495 kg/litre kg Heating oil35.3 MJ/litre2.518 kg/litre0.27 – 0.35 kg Electricity0.54 kg Electricity (Heat Pump)0.12 – 0.18 kg Figures in RED assume heating is provided by condensing appliances A litre of diesel has 8.6% more energy than 1 litre of petrol How far does one have to drive in a small family car to emit as much CO 2 as heating and old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles UNITS of Energy: INTRODUCTION

29 The study of ENERGY is complicated by the presence of numerous sets of UNITS OF MEASURE which frequently confuse the issue. It is IMPORTANT to recognise the DIFFERENCE between the TWO BASIC UNITS:- a) the JOULE (a measure of quantity) b) the WATT (a RATE of acquiring/ converting/ or using ENERGY). 2.0 UNITS of Energy: INTRODUCTION 29

30 The basic unit of Energy is the JOULE. the WORK DONE when a force moves through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of the force. The SI unit is the JOULE, and all forms of Energy should be measured in terms of the JOULE. FORCE is measured in Newtons (N) DISTANCE is measured in metres (m) Thus WORK DONE = Newtons x metres = Joules. A 1 kg lump of coal, or a litre of oil will have an equivalent Energy Content measured in Joules (J). Thus 1 kg of UK coal is equivalent to 24 x 10 6 J. or 1 litre of oil is equivalent to 42 x 10 6 J. The different units currently in use are shown in Table Quantity of Energy 30

31 JOULE (J). calorie (cal) erg Kalorie (or kilogram calorie Kcal or Kal) British Thermal Unit (BTU) Therm kilowatt-hour (kWh) million tonnes of coal equivalent (mtce) million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) - (often also seen as - mtep - in International Literature). litres of oil gallons (both Imperial and US) of oil barrels of oil million tonnes of peat equivalent Table 2.1 Energy units in common use QUANTITY OF ENERGY 31

32 Situation is confused further US (short) ton Imperial (long) ton metric tonne. European Coal has an Energy content 20% than the equivalent weight of UK coal. See Data Book for conversion factors. Always use the SI unit (JOULE) in all essays etc. If necessary cross refer to the original source unit in brackets. CONSIDERABLE CONFUSION SURROUNDS THE USE OF THE KILOWATT-HOUR -- DO NOT USE IT!!!! 2.1. QUANTITY OF ENERGY 32

33 The RATE of doing WORK, using ENERGY is measured in WATTS. i.e. 1 Watt = 1 Joule per second 1 W = 1 J s -1 Burn 1 kg coal (Energy Content 24 x 10 6 J) in 1 hour (3600 seconds) – RATE of consumption is:- 24 x 10 6 / 3600 = W Equally, a Solar Panel receiving 115 W m -2 (the mean value for the UK), the total energy received in the year will be:- 115 x 24 x 60 x 60 x 365 = 3.62 x 10 9 J RATE OF USING ENERGY 33


35 Implies that the cost of Sizewell would be about £15!!!!!!! 35

36 milli - mx kilo - kx 10 3 Mega - Mx 10 6 Giga - Gx 10 9 Tera - Tx Peta - Px Exa - Ex NOTE:- 1) The prefix for kilo is k NOT K 2) There are no agreed prefixes for or ) Avoid mixing prefixes and powers of 10 wherever possible. i.e. 280 GJ is permissible but not GJ or 2.8 x 10 4 GJ SI PREFIXES 36

37 kW per Head GDP per head (US$ (95) USA Russia CanadaChina India UK Japan Germany Poland France Qatar Other EU Countries Nordic EU New EU Mediterranean EU The wealth of a country and energy requirements are related Energy – GDP Relationships

38 Energy – GDP relationships As an exercise in unit conversion download the energy- GDP relationships file from the Web Page. Convert the units of thousand tonnes of oil equivalent into PetaJoules. Work out the energy requirement associated with £1 of GDP. Plot the relationship with time - How has this changed over the last 60 years? Noting the energy requirement for £1 wealth, estimate what the price of petrol and diesel should be if society valued energy at the same level as wealth generally if the energy content of a litre of petrol is 32.9 MJ/litre and that of diesel is 35.7 MJ/litre As an exercise in your own time – repeat the analysis for each of the fuels Coal, Gas, Oil, Electricity separately.

39 NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future Energy Definitions N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation 39

40 All uses of energy involve conversion of one form of energy to another. Energy conversion processes is inherently inefficient 3. ENERGY - DEFINITIONS the amount of useful energy out Efficiency ( ) = x 100% the amount of energy put in Some Typical Efficiencies:- steam (railway) engines 10% cars % electric fire ~100% gas central heating boiler % oil central heating boiler % UEA boiler ~87% Power Station Boiler 90-92% Open Coal fire 10% Coal Central Heating 40-50% Steam Turbine 45-50% 40

41 3.2 PRIMARY ENERGY - The energy content of the energy resource when it is in the ground. 3.3 DELIVERED ENERGY - The energy content of the fuel as it is delivered to the place of use. 3.4 USEFUL ENERGY - The actual amount of energy required for a given function IN THE FORM USABLE FOR THAT FUNCTION. ENERGY DEFINITIONS 41

42 Primary Energy Content of fuel PER = Delivered Energy content of fuel EXAMPLES:- Gas : Oil : Coal e.g. for gas, 6% of the energy extracted is used either directly, or indirectly to deliver the energy to the customer. - exploration - making production platforms - making pipelines - pumping - administration and retail of fuel - fractionating/blending fuel 3.5 PRIMARY ENERGY RATIO (PER) For Electricity, the PER has varied over the years - it is currently around

43 Appliances are not, in general 100% efficient in converting the fuel into a useful form of energy. Thus (from 3.1 above):- The efficiency of the appliance may be expressed as:- useful energy out (in form required) = energy input to appliance (+) + in most cases, the energy input will be the delivered energy, so:- useful energy = delivered energy 3.6 Appliance Efficiency ( ) 43

44 Life Cycle Analysis If we want 1 GJ of useful energy, How much energy must we dig from the ground if we require the energy as heat from as gas boiler with an efficiency of 70%? Primary Energy Required = 1 / 0.7 x 1.06 = 1.51 GJ ======= Be sure you understand this relationship, and why it is not:- 0.7 x 1.06 or 1.3 x FURTHER COMMENTS ABOUT EFFICIENCY 44

45 Energy Efficiency is the efficient use of energy. IT DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN A SAVING OF RESOURCES. e.g. Producing 20% more products for same energy input would not save energy overall even though it would reduce energy requirement per product. Insulating a poorly heated house will increase the efficiency of using energy, but the savings in resources will be small increased temperature avoiding hypothermia is efficient use of energy. 3.8 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 45

46 Energy Conservation is the saving of energy resources. Energy Efficiency is a necessary pre-requisite for Energy Conservation (remember Energy Efficiency does not necessarily mean Energy Conservation). It is interesting to note the Government Office was termed THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OFFICE Some members of the Government still believe Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation are the same. However, the ENERGY SAVING TRUST (relevant for domestic applications is closer to what is needed. The CARBON TRUST is the equivalent organisation for businesses 3.9 ENERGY CONSERVATION 46

47 Industry/Commerce often consider Energy Conservation only as a saving in MONETARY terms The moral definition is the saving of resources. This often will not result in a MONETARY saving The so called Energy Conservation Grants to Industry in late 1970's early 1980's were not Conservation Grants at all, but Grants to encourage switching of fuels from oil to coal OTHER DEFINITIONS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION 47

48 Energy Content of the fuel per unit mass or unit volume. - maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from a unit of the fuel. There are two Calorific Values:- lower calorific value (LCV) This is amount of energy derived by combusting a fuel when the products of combustion are emitted at temperatures in excess of 100 o C i.e. any water present is emitted as steam. upper calorific value (UCV) This is amount of energy derived by combusting a fuel when the products of combustion are emitted at temperatures below 100 o C i.e. any water present is emitted as water vapour. The difference between the two calorific values is about 5% (UCV > LCV) 3.11 CALORIFIC VALUE 48

49 This is the Energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a body through 1 degree Celsius. This parameter is needed when storage of Energy is considered. (e.g. size of Hot Water Cylinder in a House) 3.12 SPECIFIC HEAT 49

50 50

51 This is the Energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a body through 1 degree Celsius. This parameter is needed when storage of Energy is considered. (e.g. size of Hot Water Cylinder in a House) 3.12 SPECIFIC HEAT 51 Finally a point for reflection

52 billion people 0.94 billion people Raw materials 1.03 billion people Products : 478 Mtonnes CO 2 increase ( ) Aid & Education The Unbalanced Triangular Trade Each person in Developed Countries has been responsible for an extra 463 kg of CO 2 emissions in goods imported from China in just 3 years (2002 – 2005)

53 53 And Finally Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher BC If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading. N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv

Download ppt "NBSLM01E Climate Change and Energy: Past, Present and Future 2010 1.Introduction 2. Units and GDP Relationships 3.Definitions N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD,"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google