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Published byDerek Ray Modified over 5 years ago

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Quantum Atom

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Louis deBroglie Suggested if energy has particle nature then particles should have a wave nature Particle wavelength given by λ = h/ mv mv is momentum (mass x velocity) Called matter waves

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Matter Wave Wavelengths of ordinary sized objects are too small to notice In smaller particles (like electrons) the wavelength becomes significant What is the λ of an electron with a velocity of 5.97x10 6 m/s and a mass of 9.11x10 -28 kg?

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Electron Location If a subatomic particle exhibits wave properties, we cannot know precisely where its location is The wave nature of the electron extends it out in space

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Uncertainty Principle Werner Heisenberg suggested that we cannot simultaneously know both the location and momentum of an electron Pointless to talk about the position of an electron

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Quantum Mechanics Describes mathematically the properties of an electron Wave function (Ψ 2 ) – series of solutions that describes the allowed energy levels for electrons Shows regions of probability of finding an electron Regions of high electron density have large values of Ψ 2

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Quantum Numbers Orbital – allowed energy state for an electron Principal Quantum Number (n) – same as the Bohr energy level Also called shells Range from n=1 to n=7

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Azimuthal Number (l) Called subshells The maximum value of l is one less than n l=0 s subshell (spherical) l=1 p subshell (dumbbell) l=2 d subshell (four lobes) l=3 f subshell

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Magnetic Quantum Number (m l ) These are the orbitals (hold 2 e - each) Range from – l to + l s m l = 0 ( 1 orbital) p m l = -1, 0, + 1 ( 3 orbitals) d m l = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 (5 orbitals) f m l = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 (7 orbitals)

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Example Predict the number of subshells in the fourth shell. Give the label of each subshell. How many orbitals are in each?

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