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Why are electrons restricted to specific energy levels or quantized? Louis de Broglie – proposed that if waves have particle properties, possible particles have wave properties.This includes such things as nodes:

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Relationship between wave properties (wavelength) and particles (mass*volume) De Broglie equation λ = h / mu wavelength, planks, mass, velocity

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Problem on Page 260 Calculate the wavelength of a H atom, mass = 1.674 x 10 -27 kg moving at 700 cm/s

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Quantum Mechanics Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – It is not possible to know simultaneously both the momentum p (mass x velocity) and the position of a particle with certainty This is due to the measurement methods moving the electron

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Quantum Mechanics ΔxΔp ≥ h / 4π If our measurement of the momentum p is increased, knowledge of position decreases If the measure of position x is known more precise, the momentum measurement is decreased One problem is due to the electrons not following circular paths like planets.

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Schrödinger Equation

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This works fair for the Hydrogen atom We approximate multi electron atoms

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Quantum Numbers n – principle quantum number Energy level of an orbital = 1, 2, 3…

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Quantum Numbers l – Angular momentum number (Orbital) l = n-1 0-s 1-p 2-d 3-f

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Quantum Numbers ml – Magnetic Quantum number the number of them = (2l + 1), If l = 0 then ml = is 0 If l = 1 then ml = 1,0,-1 ; Describes the orientation in space x y z

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Quantum Numbers Ms –electron spin quantum number = ½ or –½

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Quantum Numbers Ms –electron spin quantum number = ½ or –½

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