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Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Pakistan Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK.

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Pakistan Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Pakistan Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK

2 The Role Of The Scientific Journal: First, to place before the general public the grand results of Scientific work and Scientific discovery; and to urge the claims of Science to a more general recognition in Education and daily life. Secondly, to aid scientific men themselves, by giving early information of all advances made in any branch of natural knowledge throughout the world, and by affording them an opportunity of discussing the various scientific questions that arise from time to time. Nature, 4 November 1869 Key Perspectives Ltd

3 At a time when the journal has become the primary vehicle for communicating research results …. libraries are finding it difficult to maintain, let alone expand, their journal collections …. …. It is becoming increasingly clear that the current scientific communication process is not working in the best interests of the scientific community, nor in the best interests of society as a whole. Stephen Pinfield, 2005 Deputy Chief Information Officer and Director of Teaching & Learning Resources and Information Resources, University of Nottingham Key Perspectives Ltd

4 What has happened in the last 130 years? The number of scientific research journals has grown, and grown, and grown… Journal prices have risen - much faster than inflation. Since 1986: The UK retail price index has risen 70% Journal prices have risen 291% Key Perspectives Ltd

5 One result … The Men of Science do not have access to all the scientific literature they need to enable science to progress as efficiently and effectively as possible Key Perspectives Ltd

6 The communication of science Opens eyes of the world to African science Flow of ideas Generation of ideas New collaborations BRICs/technology transfer Key Perspectives Ltd

7 Old paradigms Using proxy measures of an individual scientists merit It is a journals responsibility to disseminate your work Printed article is the format of record Other scientists have time to find out what you want them to know Key Perspectives Ltd

8 New paradigms Rich, deep, broad metrics for measuring the contributions of individuals scientists Effective dissemination of your work is now in your hands (at last) The digital format will be the format of record (is already in many areas) Unless you routinely publish in Nature or Science, getting it out there is up to you Key Perspectives Ltd

9 Just funding the research is a job only part done. A fundamental part of [our] mission is to ensure the widest possible dissemination and unrestricted access to that research. Robert Terry Senior Policy Advisor, Wellcome Trust Key Perspectives Ltd

10 What Open Access is about Freely available Publicly available Permanently available Key Perspectives Ltd

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13 The World Wide Web has enabled Open Access to science Not constrained by the limitations of print on paper Available to any individual with Internet access, worldwide With proper arrangements in place, availability is permanent Key Perspectives Ltd

14 What Open Access is not about NOT vanity publishing or self- publishing NOT about non-peer-reviewed literature NOT about publications that scientists expect to be paid for (e.g. books) Key Perspectives Ltd

15 Why researchers publish their work Key Perspectives Ltd

16 Open Access? A much better term to use is Open Dissemination Key Perspectives Ltd

17 Who benefits from Open Access? Scientists – as authors Scientists – as readers Scientists – as teachers Universities Research funders Taxpayers and society at large Publishers Key Perspectives Ltd

18 Increased citation rates Biology 36% Psychology108% Sociology172% Health sci 57% Political Sci 57% Physics250% Economics 49% Education 77% Law108% Business 76% Management 92% Key Perspectives Ltd (Courtesy of Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

19 Open Access increases citations Key Perspectives Ltd Range = 50%-200% (Courtesy Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

20 Open access increases citations (further studies) Lawrence 2001 (computer science) Kurtz 2004 (astronomy) Brody & Harnad 2004 (all disciplines) Antelman 2005 (philosophy, politics, electrical & electronic engineering, mathematics) Key Perspectives Ltd

21 Self-archiving in the PhilSci Archive has given instant world-wide visibility to my work. As a result, I was invited to submit papers to refereed international conferences/journals and got them accepted. Key Perspectives Ltd An authors own testimony on open access visibility

22 Lost citations, lost impact Only around 15% of research is Open Access…. ….. so 85% is not ….. and we are therefore losing 85% of the 50% increase in citations (conservative end of the range) that Open Access brings (= 42.5%) Key Perspectives Ltd

23 There is also a monetary measure Key Perspectives Ltd In the last 5 years there have been 7198 citations to 3699 articles by Pakistan scientists (indexed by ISI) This figure could have been 42.5% higher (with OA) = citations 3023 citations have been lost over 5 years With an annual S&T budget of 3bn PKR …. …. and 42.% impact lost… …. that means 1.26bn PKR-worth of impact lost to Pakistan over 5 years

24 And for individual scientists…. Diamond, A M (1986) What is a citation worth? J. Human Resources 21, 200 (www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v11p354y1988.pdf)www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v11p354y1988.pdf Marginal value of one citation is USD (depending on field and number of citations: an increase from 0 to 1 citation is worth more than from citations) Update for inflation (170%) = USD Convert to rupees = PKR Now lets look at one Pakistan scientists situation…. Key Perspectives Ltd

25 Lets take one Pakistan scientist Key Perspectives Ltd

26 Dr Atta-ur-Rahman 292 citations Could have been 42.5% higher (or more) = 584 Each citation is worth 5142 PKR Value of lost impact = 3m PKR Conservatively!!! Key Perspectives Ltd

27 Two ways to provide Open Access Publish in an Open Access journal Deposit copies of published articles in an Open Access repository (self-archiving) Key Perspectives Ltd

28 Open Access journals New Open Access publishers BioMedCentral Public Library of Science c2000 Open Access journals in existence Traditional publishers offering a hybrid publishing model Key Perspectives Ltd

29 Open access journals in Asia Approximately 130 About 90% are learned society journals India, Japan and South Korea have most Pakistan itself has none (so far) Key Perspectives Ltd

30 Self-archiving Subject-centred repositories (e.g. arXiv) Institutional repositories Subject coverage reflects institution Interoperable (Open Archives Initiative- compliant) Global interlinked network – a worldwide database of research Key Perspectives Ltd

31 Open Access repositories 550+ worldwide Open source software (e.g. EPrints from Southampton University) Key Perspectives Ltd

32 Repository types Most are institution-wide Some are departmental Some are cross-institutional Some are national Some are subject-specific Some contain only specific types of article (e.g. theses/dissertations) Key Perspectives Ltd

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34 Why an institutional repository? Fulfils a universitys mission to engender, encourage and disseminate scholarly work Enables a university to compile a complete record of its intellectual effort Forms a permanent record of all digital output from an institution Enables standardised online CVs for all researchers (e.g. RAE exercise) Marketing tool for universities An institution can mandate self-archiving across all subject areas Key Perspectives Ltd

35 CERN preprint archive Key Perspectives Ltd

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37 How are the authors responding? 24% have submitted an article to an Open Access journal (49% intend to) 22% have deposited an article in an Open Access institutional repository 15% have deposited an article in a subject-based Open Access repository Key Perspectives Ltd

38 An institutional repository provides researchers with: Secure storage (for completed work and for work-in-progress) Key Perspectives Ltd

39 An author said… Key Perspectives Ltd This is a very handy way to keep all of ones work together and findable, which helps me as much as anyone else.

40 An institutional repository provides researchers with: Secure storage (for completed work and for work-in-progress) A location for supporting data that are unpublished, and other digital objects Key Perspectives Ltd

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42 An institutional repository provides researchers with: Secure storage (for completed work and for work-in-progress) A location for supporting data that are unpublished One-input-many outputs (CVs, publications) Key Perspectives Ltd

43 What discourages self-archiving? I worry about copyright infringement Key Perspectives Ltd

44 Publisher permissions (by publisher) Key Perspectives Ltd

45 Publisher permissions (by journal) Key Perspectives Ltd

46 Publisher permissions 92% of journals permit self-archiving SHERPA/RoMEO list at: Or at: Key Perspectives Ltd

47 What discourages self-archiving? I worry about copyright infringement It will be too difficult Key Perspectives Ltd

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49 What discourages self-archiving? I worry about copyright infringement It will be too difficult It will take too long Key Perspectives Ltd

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51 What can encourage self-archiving? Highlighting the increased visibility and impact Key Perspectives Ltd

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53 What can encourage self-archiving? Highlighting the increased visibility and impact Requiring authors to self-archive Key Perspectives Ltd

54 Author readiness to comply with a mandate 81% 14% 5% Key Perspectives Ltd

55 Institutions with a mandate already University of Southampton School of Electronics & Computer Science (since 2003) (90+% compliance already) CERN (2003) (90% compliance already) University of Southampton (2004) Queensland University of Technology (2004) (40%+ compliance and growing) University of Minho, Portugal (2005) Key Perspectives Ltd

56 (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

57 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

58 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

59 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

60 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

61 Developments around the world Australian Govt funds nationwide network of repositories to make Australian science more visible French funding bodies set up OA archives All German universities now have a repository Netherlands has a nationwide Cream of Science initiative Key Perspectives Ltd

62 The developing world… Brazil is well ahead India is moving fast China now developing a policy Pakistan has built its first national repository Key Perspectives Ltd

63 Other drivers for Open Access Data sharing stipulations E-science Interdisciplinary research Scientometrics Key Perspectives Ltd

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65 There are many more measures… Bibliometric measures: Co-citations Hub/authority counts Incest analysis Impact measures: Citation growth, longevity, latency-to-peak Download growth, longevity, latency-to-peak Etc, etc, etc Key Perspectives Ltd

66 Effective ways to achieve OA in Pakistan Encourage authors to use OA journals where appropriate Build an archive Teach them how to deposit (do it for them if necessary) Advocate: tell authors the advantages Reassure: the consequences are not disastrous Insist they do it (impose a mandate) Key Perspectives Ltd

67 Wellcome Trust: Worlds largest private funder of biomedical (and allied) research Spends c£400 million per annum Key Perspectives Ltd

68 Just funding the research is a job only part done. A fundamental part of [our] mission is to ensure the widest possible dissemination and unrestricted access to that research. Robert Terry Senior Policy Advisor, Wellcome Trust Key Perspectives Ltd

69 Wellcome Trust Issued a Position Statement on Open and Unrestricted Access to Published Research Amended its Grant Conditions accordingly Effective 1 October 2005 Key Perspectives Ltd

70 The Wellcome Trust policy on OA Requires self-archiving of articles Will pay publication fees for publishing in open access journals (1-2% of Wellcomes total research expenditure) Key Perspectives Ltd

71 Deals with publisher obstructions: If publishers insist on copyright terms inconsistent with the prior funding agreement, then the Trust simply tells grantees to choose among three options: Give the journal fewer rights than it wants and retain the right to comply with the funding agreement Insert a Wellcome-written paragraph into the publisher's copyright transfer agreement allowing the grantee to comply with the funding agreement Find another publisher Key Perspectives Ltd

72 Publisher reaction? Key Perspectives Ltd

73 Readiness to comply with a mandate Key Perspectives Ltd

74 Thank you for listening Shukriyah Key Perspectives Ltd


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