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OPEN ACCESS: What is it? Why should we have it? Where is it now? Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK.

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Presentation on theme: "OPEN ACCESS: What is it? Why should we have it? Where is it now? Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 OPEN ACCESS: What is it? Why should we have it? Where is it now? Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK

2 Why researchers publish their work Key Perspectives Ltd

3 Old paradigms Use of proxy measures of an individual scientists merit is as good as it gets It is a journals responsibility to disseminate your work Printed article is the format of record Other scientists have time to search out what you want them to know Key Perspectives Ltd

4 New paradigms Rich, deep, broad metrics for measuring the contributions of individual scientists Effective dissemination of your work is now in your hands (at last) The digital format will be the format of record (is already in many areas) Unless you routinely publish in Nature or Science, getting it out there is up to you Key Perspectives Ltd

5 Open Access: What is it? Online Immediate Free (non-restricted) Free (gratis) To the scholarly literature that authors give away Permanent Key Perspectives Ltd

6 Open Access: Who benefits? Benefits to researchers themselves Benefits to institutions Benefits to national economies Benefits to science and society Key Perspectives Ltd

7 The digital era The potential role of electronic networks in scientific publication … goes far beyond providing searchable archives for electronic journals. The whole process of scholarly communication is undergoing a revolution comparable to the one occasioned by the invention of printing. Stevan Harnad, 1990 Key Perspectives Ltd

8 And … Still only 15% of research is Open Access Key Perspectives Ltd

9 New niches Open Access journals (www.doaj.org) Open Access repositories (author self-archiving) Key Perspectives Ltd

10 Repositories: interoperable Show their content in a specific form Harvested by search engines Form a database of global research Freely available Publicly available Permanently available Key Perspectives Ltd

11 Open Access repositories circa 800 worldwide and growing at an average of 1 per day 0 in Jordan (only 1 in the whole Middle East) Open source software (e.g. EPrints from Southampton University) Key Perspectives Ltd

12 Using repositories UoCs eScholarship repository logged 2 million downloads: 2 years - 0.5m 1 year – 1m 9mths – 2m 10K records at end 2005 University of Otago Business School Launched mid-November articles by mid-February K downloads Key Perspectives Ltd

13 And yet …. Only 24% of authors have submitted an article to an Open Access journal Only 22% have self-archived in their institutional repository Natural selection or genetic drift? Key Perspectives Ltd

14 Why we should have Open Access Greater impact from scientific endeavour More rapid and more efficient progress of science Better assessment, better monitoring, better management of science Novel information-creation using new and advanced technologies Key Perspectives Ltd

15 Why researchers publish their work Key Perspectives Ltd

16 Self-archiving in the PhilSci Archive has given instant world-wide visibility to my work. As a result, I was invited to submit papers to refereed international conferences/journals and got them accepted. Key Perspectives Ltd An authors own testimony on open access visibility

17 Open Access increases citations Key Perspectives Ltd Range = 50%-200% (Data: Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

18 Open access increases citations (other studies) Lawrence 2001 (computer science) Kurtz 2004 (astronomy) Brody & Harnad 2004 (all disciplines) Antelman 2005 (philosophy, politics, electrical & electronic engineering, mathematics) Eysenbach 2006 (biomedicine) Key Perspectives Ltd

19 Lost citations, lost impact Only around 15% of research is Open Access…. ….. so 85% is not ….. and we are therefore losing 85% of the 50% increase in citations (conservative end of the range) that Open Access brings (= 42.5%) Key Perspectives Ltd

20 National economies Jordanian scientists: 1708 articles in 2004/5 Number of citations: 2235 If all had been OA, there would have been (42.5% more) 3185 citations Since the Jordanian Government invested $200 million in S&T in 2004/5 ….. This means lost impact worth $85 million to the Jordanian economy Key Perspectives Ltd Jordanian scientists: 1708 articles in 2004/5 Number of citations: 2235 If all had been OA, there would have been (42.5% more) 3185 citations Since the Jordanian Government invested $200 million in S&T in 2004/5 ….. This means lost impact worth $85 million to the Jordanian economy National economies

21 Science is faster, more efficient Key Perspectives Ltd

22 Measure, assess, and manage science more effectively Assess individuals, groups, institutions, on the basis of citation analysis Track trends: growth, latency, longevity Identify hubs and authorities Identify silent, unsung contributors Predict impact, directions Manage, assess scientific programmes to the benefit of our societies Key Perspectives Ltd

23 Find a researcher ….. Key Perspectives Ltd

24 Track citation history Key Perspectives Ltd

25 Follow the citing trail … Key Perspectives Ltd

26 Follow the citing trail … Key Perspectives Ltd

27 New knowledge from old Text-mining and data-mining technologies UK: National Text-Mining Centre The Grid / e-research / cyberresearch Example: NeuroCommons (www.neurocommons.org) Key Perspectives Ltd

28 Where is Open Access now? Key Perspectives Ltd

29

30 Average number of articles in an institutional repository … 297! Key Perspectives Ltd

31 Publisher permissions (by journal) Key Perspectives Ltd

32 Publisher permissions 92% of journals permit self-archiving SHERPA/RoMEO list at: Or at: Key Perspectives Ltd

33 Other reasons Time Average a few minutes Estimated 40 minutes per year Difficulty Very easy or easy Key Perspectives Ltd

34 Author readiness to comply with a mandate 81% 14% 5% Key Perspectives Ltd

35 Institutions with a mandate already University of Southampton School of Electronics & Computer Science (since 2003) (90+% compliance already) CERN (2003) (90% compliance already) Queensland University of Technology (2004) (40%+ compliance and growing) University of Minho, Portugal (2005) Key Perspectives Ltd

36 (Data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

37 Developments on mandating Wellcome Trust NIH RCUK CURES Act (USA) FRPAA (USA) National Institute of Technology, India Universities in UK and Australia Key Perspectives Ltd

38 Why we should have Open Access Greater impact from scientific endeavour More rapid and more efficient progress of science Better assessment, better monitoring, better management of science Novel information-creation using new and advanced technologies Key Perspectives Ltd

39 شكرا Thank you for listening! Key Perspectives Ltd Shokran


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