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Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Africa Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK.

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Presentation on theme: "Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Africa Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Access: What it can do for science and scholarship in Africa Alma Swan Key Perspectives Ltd Truro, UK

2 The communication of science Opens eyes of the world to African science Flow of ideas Generation of ideas New collaborations BRICs/technology transfer Key Perspectives Ltd

3 Old paradigms Using proxy measures of an individual scientists merit It is a journals responsibility to disseminate your work Printed article is the format of record Other scientists have time to find out what you want them to know Key Perspectives Ltd

4 New paradigms Rich, deep, broad metrics for measuring the contributions of individuals scientists Effective dissemination of your work is now in your hands (at last) The digital format will be the format of record (is already in many areas) Unless you routinely publish in Nature or Science, getting it out there is up to you Key Perspectives Ltd

5 What Open Access is about Freely available Publicly available Permanently available Key Perspectives Ltd

6 The World Wide Web has enabled Open Access to science Not constrained by the limitations of print on paper Available to any individual with Internet access, worldwide With proper arrangements in place, availability is permanent Key Perspectives Ltd

7 What Open Access is not about NOT vanity publishing or self- publishing NOT about non-peer-reviewed literature NOT about publications that scientists expect to be paid for (e.g. books) Key Perspectives Ltd

8 Who benefits from Open Access? Scientists – as authors Scientists – as readers Scientists – as teachers Universities Research funders Taxpayers and society at large Publishers Key Perspectives Ltd

9 Why researchers publish their work Key Perspectives Ltd

10 Open Access? A much better term to use is Open Dissemination Key Perspectives Ltd

11 Increased citation rates Biology 36% Psychology108% Sociology172% Health sci 57% Political Sci 57% Physics250% Economics 49% Education 77% Law108% Business 76% Management 92% Key Perspectives Ltd (Courtesy of Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

12 Open Access increases citations Key Perspectives Ltd Range = 50%-200% (Courtesy Stevan Harnad and co-workers)

13 Lost citations, lost impact Average 50% increase in citations with OA Only around 15% of research is Open Access…. ….. so 85% is not ….. and we are therefore losing 85% of the 50% increase in citations (conservative end of the range) that Open Access brings (= 42.5%) Key Perspectives Ltd

14 What this means for African science In 2005, there were 9671 articles listed in the Web of Science (ISI Science Citation Index) And 4001 citations to them so far With Open Access (+42.5% more citations) There could have been 1700 more citations by mid-February 2006 (5701 total) Key Perspectives Ltd

15 There is also a monetary measure With an S&T budget of 157 million USD for (NEPADs budget) …and 42.5% of impact lost …that means a loss of 67 million USD- worth of impact to African economies over the next 5 years Key Perspectives Ltd

16 Two ways to provide Open Access Publish in an Open Access journal Deposit copies of published articles in an Open Access repository (self-archiving) Key Perspectives Ltd

17 Open Access journals New Open Access publishers BioMedCentral Public Library of Science c2000 Open Access journals in existence Traditional publishers offering a hybrid publishing model Key Perspectives Ltd

18 Self-archiving Subject-centred repositories (e.g. arXiv) Institutional repositories Subject coverage reflects institution Interoperable (Open Archives Initiative- compliant) Global interlinked network – a worldwide database of research Key Perspectives Ltd

19 Open Access repositories 550+ worldwide Open source software (e.g. EPrints from Southampton University) Key Perspectives Ltd

20 Why an institutional repository? Fulfils a universitys mission to engender, encourage and disseminate scholarly work Enables a university to compile a complete record of its intellectual effort Forms a permanent record of all digital output from an institution Enables standardised online CVs for all researchers (e.g. RAE exercise) Marketing tool for universities An institution can mandate self-archiving across all subject areas Key Perspectives Ltd

21 CERN preprint archive Key Perspectives Ltd


23 How are the authors responding? 24% have submitted an article to an Open Access journal (49% intend to) 22% have deposited an article in an Open Access institutional repository 15% have deposited an article in a subject-based Open Access repository Key Perspectives Ltd

24 What can encourage self-archiving? Highlighting the increased visibility and impact Key Perspectives Ltd

25 What can encourage self-archiving? Highlighting the increased visibility and impact Requiring authors to self-archive Key Perspectives Ltd

26 Author readiness to comply with a mandate 81% 14% 5% Key Perspectives Ltd


28 (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

29 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

30 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

31 Key Perspectives Ltd (Australian data courtesy of Arthur Sale)

32 Developments around the world Australian Govt funds nationwide network of repositories to make Australian science more visible French funding bodies set up OA archives All German universities now have a repository Netherlands has a nationwide Cream of Science initiative Key Perspectives Ltd

33 The developing world… Brazil is well ahead India is moving fast China now developing a policy Pakistan has built its first national repository Key Perspectives Ltd

34 Other drivers for Open Access Data sharing stipulations E-science Interdisciplinary research Scientometrics Key Perspectives Ltd


36 There are many more measures… Bibliometric measures: Co-citations Hub/authority counts Incest analysis Impact measures: Citation growth, longevity, latency-to-peak Download growth, longevity, latency-to-peak Etc, etc, etc Key Perspectives Ltd

37 Effective ways to achieve OA in Africa Encourage authors to use OA journals where appropriate Build archives Teach them how to deposit (do it for them if necessary) Advocate: tell authors the advantages Reassure: the consequences are not disastrous Insist they do it (impose a mandate) Key Perspectives Ltd

38 Wellcome Trust: Worlds largest private funder of biomedical (and allied) research Spends c£400 million per annum Key Perspectives Ltd

39 The Wellcome Trust policy on OA Requires self-archiving of articles Will pay publication fees for publishing in open access journals (1-2% of Wellcomes total research expenditure) Key Perspectives Ltd

40 Just funding the research is a job only part done. A fundamental part of [our] mission is to ensure the widest possible dissemination and unrestricted access to that research. Robert Terry Senior Policy Advisor, Wellcome Trust Key Perspectives Ltd

41 Key Perspectives Ltd Thank you for listening

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