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Metric System

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Measurements Length-measure of distance –Measured with a yard stick or ruler Volume-measure of how much space an object takes up –Measured with a graduated cylinder, by water displacement, or by equation cube volume=length X width X height (LXWXH) Mass-technically a measure of matter, but here on Earth it is the same thing as weight –Measured with a triple-beam-balance

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Metric System The metric system is based on a base unit for each measurement Length = meter Volume = liter Mass(Weight) = gram Temperature = Celsius Time = seconds Prefixes plus base units make up the metric system –Example: Centi + meter = Centimeter

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Metric System The three prefixes that we will use the most are: –kilo –centi –milli kilo hectodeca Base Units meter gram liter deci centimilli

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Metric System These prefixes are based on powers of 10. From each “step” is either: 10 times larger or 10 times smaller kilo hectodeca Base Units meter gram liter deci centimilli

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Why 10 times larger? –Units that are 10 times larger or smaller are easier to convert. 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters 1 mm 1 cm 40 41 40

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Metric System For each “step” to right, you are multiplying by 10 1 liter = 10 deciliters = 100 centiliters 2 grams = 20 decigrams = 200 centigrams kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli ( 1 x 10 = 10) = (10 x 10 = 100) (2 x 10 = 20) = (20 x 10 = 200)

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Metric System An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters or 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s try from meters to kilometers: 16000 meters = 1600 decameters 160 hectometers 16 kilometers kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Temperature Celsius Scale is based on water –The freezing point of water is 0 O C –The boiling point of water is 100 O C

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Temperature Conversion The equations to convert between Fahrenheit and Celsius are: °F = (1.8 x °C) +32 °C = (°F-32) x 0.555

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Example If it is 80°F outside, what is the temperature in °C? °C = (°F-32) x 0.555 °C = (80-32) x 0.555 °C = (48) x 0.555 °C = 26.6

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Density Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by the volume. Density = Mass/Volume For example 1mL of water has a mass of 1g. Density = Mass/Volume Density = 1g/1mL Density = 1g/mL Objects with a density less than 1g/mL will float in water and objects with a density greater than 1g/mL will sink in water

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