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Metric System Monday, August 03, 2015

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SI Units Notes= Green

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The basics What is SI? SI stands for “Le Système international d'unités” or The International System of Units. SI units are used throughout the world except in the United States and some of the United Kingdom.

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What are the SI units? There are 5 major types of measurements: Length Mass Volume Temperature Time

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What are the units?! Length: Length is measured in METERS Mass: Mass is measured in GRAMS Volume: Volume is measured in LITERS Temperature: Temperature is measured in Degrees Celsius

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SI vs English The “English” system is what we are probably more familiar with. English units for the same measures are: Length: inches/feet/yards/miles Mass: ounces/pounds/tons Volume: fluid ounce/cups/quarts/gallons Temperature: Fahrenheit/Celsius Time: Second

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Why use SI? There is one key advantage of SI over English. Metric (SI) units work in 10s, therefore it is very easy to convert from big units to small units and vice versa. English units are not easy to convert. Can you easily convert one mile to inches?

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Moving between units To change from one unit size or type to another is called a “conversion”. To help us learn conversions you will want to familiarize yourself with this saying: “King Henry Died (Monday) drinking chocolate milk” Or Kinky Haired Ducks (Under) Dads Car Motor

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Say What? King: Kilo (meaning 1000) Henry: Hecto (meaning 100) Died: Deca (meaning 10) Monday : the base unit (1) (Meters) drinking: deci (meaning 1/10) chocolate: centi (meaning 1/100) milk: milli (meaning 1/1000)

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Or What? Kinky: Kilo (meaning 1000) Haired: Hecto (meaning 100) Ducks: Deca (meaning 10) Under : the base Unit (1) Dads: deci (meaning 1/10) Car: centi (meaning 1/100) Motor: milli (meaning 1/1000)

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And their symbols/abbreviations… Namekilo-hecto-deca-No Prefix, unit only SymbolkhdaNone Factor10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 Namedeci-centi-milli- Symboldcm Factor10 -1 10 -2 10 -3

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Life examples Create this chart in your notebook to take up a ½ page. Kilo- (k) (base)milli- (m) Gram (g) Liter (L) Meter (m)

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Fill it out! Take the next 10 minutes to think of items you could measure using each box! Helpful starters: 1 gram= 1 paperclip 1 liter= 1 bottle of water 1 meter= 1 meter stick

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Basics

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Metric System The metric system is based on a base unit that corresponds to a certain kind of measurement Length = meter Volume = liter Weight (Mass) = gram

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Metric System Prefixes plus base units make up the metric system Example : Centi + meter = Centimeter Kilo + liter = Kiloliter

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Metric System The three prefixes that we will use the most are: kilo centi milli kilo hectodeca Base Units meter gram liter deci centimilli

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Metric System So if you needed to measure length you would choose meter as your base unit Length of a tree branch 1.5 meters Length of a room 5 meters Length of a ball of twine stretched out 25 meters

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Metric System But what if you need to measure a longer distance, like from your house to school? Let’s say you live approximately 10 miles from school 10 miles = 16093 meters 16093 is a big number, but what if you could add a prefix onto the base unit to make it easier to manage: 16093 meters = 16.093 kilometers (or 16.1 if rounded to 1 decimal place)

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Metric System These prefixes are based on powers of 10. What does this mean? From each prefix every “step” is either: 10 times larger or 10 times smaller For example Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters kilo hectodeca Base Units meter gram liter deci centimilli

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Metric System Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters so it takes more millimeters for the same length 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters Example not to scale 1 mm 1 cm 40 41 40

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Metric System For each “step” to right, you are multiplying by 10 For example, let’s go from a base unit to centi 1 liter = 10 deciliters = 100 centiliters 2 grams = 20 decigrams = 200 centigrams kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli ( 1 x 10 = 10) = (10 x 10 = 100) (2 x 10 = 20) = (20 x 10 = 200)

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Metric System An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired Example: change meters to centimeters 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters or 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s try our previous example from meters to kilometers: 16093 meters = 1609.3 decameters = 160.93 hectometers = 16.093 kilometers So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below) kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to kilometers 400000 centimeters = 4 kilometers 400000 centimeters = 4.00000 kilometers kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric System Now let’s start from meters and convert to kilometers 4000 meters = 4 kilometers kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli Now let’s start from centimeters and convert to meters 4000 centimeters = 40 meters

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Metric System Now let’s start from meters and convert to centimeters 5 meters = 500 centimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to meters.3 kilometers = 300 meters

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Metric System Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to millimeters 4 kilometers = 4000000 millimeters or 4 kilometers = 40 hectometers = 400 decameters = 4000 meters = 40000 decimeters = 400000 centimeters = 4000000 millimeters kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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Metric Abbreviations UnitAbbreviationNumber kilok1,000 hectoh100 deka/decada10 SingleNone1 decid0.1 centic0.01 millim0.001

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Metric System Summary Base units in the metric system are meter, liter, gram Metric system is based on powers of 10 For conversions within the metric system, each “step” is 1 decimal place to the right or left Using the diagram below, converting to the right, moves the decimal to the right and vice versa kilo hectodeca meter liter gram deci centimilli

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