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1 Higher Education, Science & Technology …. Imperatives for Socio-economic Development Dr. S. T. K Naim Consultant COMSTECH 33-Constitution Avenue G-5/2,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Higher Education, Science & Technology …. Imperatives for Socio-economic Development Dr. S. T. K Naim Consultant COMSTECH 33-Constitution Avenue G-5/2,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Higher Education, Science & Technology …. Imperatives for Socio-economic Development Dr. S. T. K Naim Consultant COMSTECH 33-Constitution Avenue G-5/2, Islamabad November 2006

2 Knowledge critical for development Growing recognition that development is built not merely through accumulation of physical capital and human skills, but on a foundation of information, learning and adaptation… - World Bank, 1999. World Development Report: Knowledge For development - Promotion of Innovation Culture 2

3 Challenges for Developing Countries Rapidly advancing S&T knowledge Increasing use of information technology Knowledge capital replacing physical capital as source of wealth Higher education gaining vital importance Resulting expansion: rapid, chaotic, and unplanned 3

4 Challenges Low literacy level (50%) and low enrollment in higher education High population growth rate Low R&D expenditure Few scientists and engineers Non competitive industry and knowledge producing institutions Limited private sector R&D and Innovation activities Weak linkages between industry and university Brain Drain 4

5 Risks Excluding Nations with low investment in Education and Scientific Research Unskilled will be marginalized in the knowledge economy Brain Drain Movement of highly skilled to developed countries as demand exists due to ageing population Losing competition for capital investment Capital investment follows human resource capacity (Chinas high technology science zones with foreign enterprises account for 75% of its exports) 5

6 PAKISTAN REFORMS POLITICAL WILL S&T Budget increased 6000%!!! Higher Education budget increased 1,200%!!! Full support and personal interest by President Musharraf A real beginning after 30 years of neglect 6


8 Strategy: Learning from Korea Growth of Per Capita GNP: PAKISTAN & KOREA Source Pakistan: UNESCO, Statistical Year Book 1980,1982,1991 and Economic Survey of Pakistan Source Korea: Science & Technology Policy Institute (STEPI), Korea, World Bank US dollars Establishment of Korean Institute of Science & Technology (KIST) Establishment of Korean Advanced Institute for Sciences & Technology (KAIST) Launching of National Research & Development Program (NRDP) 8 89 363 353 409 508 443 600 1597 2000 5883 10076 13000 13980 187 173 123 350 253 95 79 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 1960-611965-661970-711975-761980-811985-861990-911995-961999-20002004 PakistanKorea

9 Lessons from China Opened up to global knowledge: 1978 Imported massively capital goods and components Reform of Universities and R&D Organizations Large number of students sent abroad for training Incubation System at Universities Attracted FDI for both domestic and export markets Induced FDI to set up large domestic research facilities Expatriate scientists set up high tech industries Focus on premier universities as key knowledge institutions – Many alliances with global universities – Spinning off high tech companies 9

10 China Technology Change at Industry Increasing domestic R&D Larger R&D share by productive sector Moving rapidly towards market economy Joined WTO to lock in need for structural reform Has become major global player 10

11 Strategy Learning from past policies / review reports Peer evaluation of 228 provincial R&D centres and 300 S&T departments of Universities Identification of productive centres / scientists Bench Marking Institutions 11

12 Strategy Foresight for Technology Strategy Foresight for Technology Wide consultation with private sector, scientists, government officials and economists Strategy and Action Plan proposed to fill Skills, Technology and Policy gaps Key Projects identified with costs and possible impact on social / economic development 12

13 Human Resource Development Human Resource Development Up-gradating R&D Infrastructure Up-gradating R&D Infrastructure Technology Development & Industrialization Technology Development & Industrialization Information Technology Information Technology Restructuring of R&D Institutions Restructuring of R&D Institutions Strengthening of Policy, Coordination and Management Structure Strengthening of Policy, Coordination and Management Structure PAKISTAN REFORMS Major Programmes Major Programmes 13

14 Overarching Approach Simultaneous Bi-Modal Approach Required –Bottom-Up Basic Health, Primary Education, Water …. Basic Health, Primary Education, Water …. Investment in ICT and transport infrastructure Investment in ICT and transport infrastructure –Top-Down Higher Education Higher Education Technology Development Technology Development Industrial Linkages Industrial Linkages 14

15 Faculty Development Programs & Achievements Foreign Scholarship Programs –Over 1000 students being trained in Universities: Germany, France, Austria, Sweden, Netherlands, Korea, and China Fulbright Scholarship Program –1000 students being trained over 5 years –4 years funding for graduate study in US In service Training –University teachers exposed to modern teaching methods 15

16 Post Doctoral Research Program –100 scholars sent per year abroad Faculty Hiring –More than 250 foreign faculty participating –Over 100 under long term hiring scheme (1- 5 years) Indigenous Scholarship Program –Over 2000 scholarships awarded –HEC Approved Supervisor scheme –Current Deficiencies met through Foreign faculty Faculty Development Programs & Achievements (Contd.) 16

17 Increasing Access / Relevance Programs & Achievements Enhancing Enrolment –40% increase in enrolment –19% increase in Distance Learning Program enrolment University Development Projects –5- 7 year development vision of universities –Infrastructure, faculty, new programs Technology Parks / Business Incubators –Faisalabad: Agricultural-Biological Research –Karachi: Herbal Pharmaceutical Research 17

18 Promotion of Scientific Research Programs & Achievements Enhancing Research Facilities –20 Centralized Research Laboratories in major universities –Digital Library access to over 20,000 leading e-journals i.e. 80% of worlds peer reviewed content Research Support –Over 240 research projects funded –International conference sponsoring Research Productivity Allowance –Incentives linked to research publications –60% increase in Research publications in international journals HEC providing Patenting Service 18

19 International Linkages 15 collaborative research projects between Pakistan and British universities –35 new linkages to be launched soon –US$1.3 billion linkage programme between Pak-US Universities over 10 years –Research collaboration with China Building Knowledge Networks Programs & Achievements 19

20 Quality Assurance Prescribed criteria for Higher Education Institutions in Private sector Quality Enhancement Cells Educational Accreditation Councils Examination System Review Quality of Faculty –Appointment Criteria –Tenure Track –Training and Research Opportunities Curriculum Review –Industry Collaboration –International Standards 4 - year undergraduate degree standardization Projects Monitoring 20

21 Technology Infrastructure: Leveraging IT University Computerization & Networking –Computer Laboratories –Campus wide high-speed LAN –Computerization of Administration Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) (60 public sector universities connected) Digital Library PAKSAT – 1 Distance Education –Virtual University –Educational TV Channels –Video Lecturing 21

22 Pakistan Education and Research Network University Computerization & Networking – ICT infrastructure, Computer Laboratories, LAN & WAN Pakistan Education and Research Network (PERN) – 60 universities connected – 155 Mbps International Internet Bandwidth – Intranet bandwidth of 50Mbps – Institutional internet bandwidth of 5Mbps – Video conferencing, Voice-over-IP services – Satellite-based Internet Downlinks: Remote institutions and campuses provided with connectivity through 45MB downlink 22

23 FASTEST INTERNET SPREAD!! 400 cities on optic fiber!! Oct 2005: 2339 cities / villages 23 IT Infrastructure and Diffusion

24 National Digital Library Program INASP as Partner Availability of over 25 Publisher databases providing access to nearly 20,000 full text journals (almost 80% of the worlds peer reviewed scientific content) Accessible at 220 institutions (Public Universities, Private Institutions, R & D Organizations) 10,000 faculty members and students trained at universities/R&D institutions across the country One million articles downloaded in 2005 Access to over 10,000 e-books Expansion programme with US Library of Congress 24

25 Selective Approach to Strengthening S&T / Higher Education Core Areas Information Technology Information Technology Engineering Engineering Biotechnology Biotechnology Pharmaceuticals / Chemicals Pharmaceuticals / Chemicals Support Areas Basic Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics) Basic Sciences (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics) Food Technology Food Technology Material Sciences Material Sciences Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Water Resources Water Resources Electronics Electronics 25

26 Improving Access / Relevance New Universities (Building Regional Knowledge Networks) –9 New Engineering Universities to be established in collaboration with Sweden, Germany, Austria, France, Korea, Netherlands, UK, USA, China At strategic sites close to industrial hubs First university to be functional by 2008 26

27 Technology Development and Industrialization Technology promotion through public / private partnership Strengthening Metrology, Testing and Quality Institutions Common Facility Centers and Skill Development Fund Private sector involvement for Technical Training National Accreditation Council Quality Policy 27

28 Partnership for Change: Working with the Private Sector Role of Government is to provide: Consistency of Policy ( legal, regulatory, IPR and fiscal) Human capital Measurement, Standards and Quality Testing Labs (need to be upgraded) Stability, Law and Order, fast commercial courts Encourage SMEs (Credit, Skill, Technology) Linking Technology purchases and FDI with knowledge transfer 28

29 Policy Imperative Seed capital / start up funds for Technology commercialization (Venture Capital) Special initiatives for hi-tech start up firms (Chinas example) Innovation Credit Scheme for Design and Engineering capability in Firms Performance awards to scientists for proactive approach to smaller firms Flexibility and effectiveness for Funds mobilization 29


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