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Teaching and Study Practices in Finnish Foreign Language Classrooms Pirjo Harjanne Research Centre for Foreign Language Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching and Study Practices in Finnish Foreign Language Classrooms Pirjo Harjanne Research Centre for Foreign Language Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching and Study Practices in Finnish Foreign Language Classrooms Pirjo Harjanne pirjo.harjanne@helsinki.fi Research Centre for Foreign Language Education (ReFLEct) http://www.helsinki.fi/sokla/reflect Department of Applied Sciences of Education University of Helsinki Seppo Tella seppotella@aoni.waseda.jp Waseda Institute for Advanced Study Waseda University Tokyo, Japan and Department of Applied Sciences of Education University of Helsinki

2 2TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 2 Contents of the presentation Introduction: - Finnish national core curricula: CLT - CLT in Finnish foreign language classrooms? KIELO KIELOResearch and Developmental Project in Foreign Language Teaching, Studying and Learning (2008–2012) KIELO KIELO research and other research on Finnish foreign language classrooms Harjanne & Tella

3 3TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 3 Finnish national core curricula (LOPS, 2003; POPS, 2004) Aim of language teaching: communicative language proficiency Means: communicative language teaching (CLT) Some salient features of CLT and TBLT What should CLT include in FL classrooms? Some salient features of CLT and TBLT (Harjanne, 2006; based on e.g. Nunan, 1989; Donato, 2000; van Lier, 2000; Brown, 2001; Richards & Rodgers, 2001; Ellis, 2003; Skehan, 2003) Harjanne & Tella

4 Socioculturalism in classrooms The participation metaphor/ Socioculturalism LearningParticipation in social interaction and communication KnowingParticipation in social interaction and communication TBLT 2009 4Harjanne & Tella

5 Theory of language *The function of language is the expression of meaning; above all interaction and communication Theory of learning *Real communication, trial and error; meaningful tasks, meaningful language to the learner Objectives *Functional and linguistic; the starting point: the students needs, experiences and contents *Meaningful authentic communication Communication *A communicative goal, the connection with life outside the classroom *Taking all the components of communicative language proficiency into consideration *Integrated practising of listening, reading, speaking and writing *Primary focus on meaning, secondary focus on form *Interaction, negotiating of meaning, risk-taking Students role *Co-operative participator in communication Teachers role *Mentor, instructor, needs analyst, task organizer, resource, feedback, researcher and learner Role of material *Task-based, authentic, supporting communicative language use

6 6 Harjanne & Tella 6 KIELO A Research and Developmental Project in Foreign Language Teaching, Studying and Learning (2008–2012) TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella

7 7TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 7 the FL teachers cognition conceptions of students, teaching, studying and learning based on values, beliefs, prior experience, practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge & the sociocultural context of school and language classroom define what and how foreign languages are taught, studiedand learnt Premises of the KIELO project Harjanne & Tella

8 8 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 8 he didactic teaching–studying–learning process (TSL process) **The FL teachers own personal didactics and pedagogical thinking **A holistic view on Communicative Language Teaching **A communicative task as a crucial part of teaching and studying **The didactic teaching–studying–learning process (TSL process) **The FL teachers own personal didactics and pedagogical thinking The key components of KIELO s theoretical framework Harjanne & Tella

9 9 9 To analyse, describe and interpret the present state of foreign language (FL) teaching in Finnish FL classrooms – the way foreign languages are taught, studied and learnt. A special focus is laid on the role, status and significance of communicative language teaching (CLT) and task-based language teaching (TBLT) as a current and topical teaching practice and as a methodological approach among FL teachers. Research task TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella

10 10TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 10 1 What salient features and emphases are found in Finnish FL classrooms? 2 What teaching and study practices are used in Finnish FL classrooms? 3 In what ways are the teaching and study practices justified by the teachers? 4 In what ways do FL teachers implement communicative language teaching and task- based language teaching? Research questions Harjanne & Tella

11 11 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 11 Research Setting Research methodology Exploratory practice Mixed methods Target groups FL teachers Students TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella

12 12TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 12 Exploratory Practice (Allwright, 2000; 2003; Allwright & Hanks, 2009) Key objective: to increase understanding of Key objective: to increase understanding of the quality of language classroom life the quality of language classroom life the salient features of an ordinary classrooms activities the salient features of an ordinary classrooms activities Teachers and learners are equal partners in researching their own classroom lives – teaching and studying Teachers and learners are equal partners in researching their own classroom lives – teaching and studying Research has to be relevant to the teacher and the students Research has to be relevant to the teacher and the students Academic researchers are research consultants Academic researchers are research consultants Harjanne & Tella

13 13 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 13 Research Setting Data gathering Questionnaires Interviews Classroom observation Electronic and digital documentation Data analysis Content analysis Discourse analysis TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella

14 14 Harjanne & Tella 14

15 KIELO KIELO research and other research on Finnish Foreign Language Classrooms Current research on teaching and study practices in Finnish FL classrooms is scarce. Only a few doctoral theses; most studies are Masters theses or Bachelors theses; still, they are important and indicatory. TBLT 2009 15Harjanne & Tella

16 16TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 16 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue 60% of the Finnish teachers of English: English at most 50% of the teaching time 60% of the Finnish teachers of English: English at most 50% of the teaching time Under 10% of the Finnish teachers of English: the target language at least 75% of the teaching time Under 10% of the Finnish teachers of English: the target language at least 75% of the teaching time (The assessment of pupils skills in English in eight European countries, 2002). Harjanne & Tella

17 17TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 17 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue English / lower and upper secondary school / four (two and two) video-recorded lessons : 60% (lower secondary) / 51% (upper secondary) of the teacher talk was Finnish 60% (lower secondary) / 51% (upper secondary) of the teacher talk was Finnish Grammar: in Finnish Grammar: in Finnish (Reini, 2008 / Masters thesis) Harjanne & Tella

18 18TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 18 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue KIELO KIELO research English / lower and upper secondary school Interviews of the teachers (N=11), observation of lessons (N=11) The aim of the teachers: maximum use of English in the lessons Harjanne & Tella

19 19TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 19 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue Observation At the beginning of the lesson: English / 11 Instructions: English / 5, English and Finnish / 4, Finnish and English 2 Grammar: Finnish / 8, English / 3 General conversation: English / 5, English and Finnish / 4, Finnish and English 2 Private conversation: English / 3, English and Finnish / 4, Finnish and English / 4 Dicipline: English / 6, English and Finnish / 1, Finnish and English / 4 Intervention in the students use of Finnish: yes / 4, not always / 3, no / 4 Harjanne & Tella

20 20TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 20 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue The experienced teachers used much more English than the inexperienced teachers The students used much more English, when the teacher used English and especially, when they were encouraged to speak English (Kuoppala, 2009 / Pedagogical thesis) Harjanne & Tella

21 21TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 21 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue KIELO KIELO research English / lower secondary school Classroom observation (1–3 lessons per 5 teachers) and a questionnaire Instructions / 5 teachers: primarily English >> Observation: Finnish and English Grammar Grammar / 5 teachers: Finnish Small talk / The teachers: English > Observation: English To praise the students / The teachers: English > Observation: English Harjanne & Tella

22 22TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 22 CLT vs. traditional language teaching CLT vs. traditional language teaching Target language vs. mother tongue Harjanne & Tella Paying attention to the students use of Finnish / 5 teachers: try to pay attention to the use of Finnish > Observation: The teachers asked the students to be quiet or they let them continue in Finnish but didnt encourage them to speak English (Järnberg, 2009 / Pedagogical thesis)

23 23TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 23 CLT vs. traditional language teaching English / lower secondary school: Teaching and studying focused on linguistic items isolated from meanings and language functions (Alanen, 2000) English / upper secondary school: Little (if any) evidence of student- centredness or of the students role as an active user of the target language (Nikula, 2007) Harjanne & Tella

24 24TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 24 CLT vs. traditional language teaching English / primary school: The teacher had a high level of control and focused her teaching on isolated linguistic units The teacher usually used English communicatively only for a few minutes during a lesson Masters thesis (Hinkkanen & Säde, 2003 / Masters thesis) Harjanne & Tella

25 25TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 25 CLT vs. traditional language teaching English / primary school: The pupils: The exercise book exercises and listening to and reading the textbook chapters played a major role Their use of English was minimal, as even discussion tasks in pairs were written down in their copybooks Masters thesis (Jalkanen & Ruuska, 2007 / Masters thesis) Harjanne & Tella

26 26TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 26 CLT vs. traditional language teaching English / upper secondary school Classroom ethnography, conversation analysis / One double-lesson of English (a part of a larger data collection of face-to-face ordinary EFL lessons) The nature of EFL conversation in classroom: The teacher had control, focusing on checking the exercises The teacher had control, focusing on checking the exercises Teacher-centred Teacher-centred Genuine conversation was scarce Genuine conversation was scarce (Turunen, 2007 / Masters thesis) Harjanne & Tella

27 27TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 27 CLT vs. traditional language teaching English/ primary school Three case studies about drama; teacher as a researcher, observation, interviews of the teachers, questionnaires to the pupils Drama enabled to simulate authentic communication in English to simulate authentic communication in English to practise all the components of to practise all the components of communicative competence (Ropponen, 2006 / Masters thesis) Harjanne & Tella

28 28TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 28 CLT vs. traditional language teaching Swedish / lower and upper secondary school Microethnography, exploratory practice, teacher as a researcher / audio-recorded lessons, a questionnaire Oral practice of Swedish with the aid of collaborative scheme-based and elaboration tasks Student-centred lessons Student-centred lessons Teacher: a mentor Teacher: a mentor Students: active participators in communication in Swedish Students: active participators in communication in Swedish Harjanne & Tella

29 29TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 29 CLT vs. traditional language teaching The students communication: co-construction of the dialogue co-construction of the dialogue peer-scaffolding peer-scaffolding much more attention to meaning than form much more attention to meaning than formConclusion: students collaboration and interactional communication came true, having the connection with life outside the classroom. students collaboration and interactional communication came true, having the connection with life outside the classroom. (Harjanne, 2006 / Doctoral thesis) Harjanne & Tella

30 30 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 30 CLT vs. traditional language teaching KIELO KIELO research What tasks do FL teachers at a university of applied sciences use in their lessons? A questionnaire to 8 FL teachers (English, Spanish, French, Swedish, German and Russian) (> 9 teachers participated!) Many more oral than written tasks The oral tasks were more communicative than the written tasks Co-operative tasks Authentic materials, self-edited materials About same number of group work and individual tasks About same amount of teacher-centred and student- centred teaching (Naumanen, 2009 / Pedagogical thesis) Harjanne & Tella

31 31 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 31 CLT vs. traditional language teaching KIELO KIELO research What kind of foreign language teaching do the pupils at lower secondary school find interesting? A questionnaire, N=42 Group work and projects in addition to grammar >> to hear and use foreign languages More speaking in foreign languages Varied FL teaching including culture and communication (Keskinen, 2009 / Pedagogical thesis) Harjanne & Tella

32 32 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 32 CLT vs. traditional language teaching KIELO KIELO research Which teaching approaches do the FL teachers in primary school and lower secondary school prefer on their lessons and why? A questionnaire (N=23) Teacher-centred (58% of the teachers), a need to control Student-centred and co-operative (42% of the teachers), to activate the students to inspire, participate and take more responsibility Harjanne & Tella

33 33 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 33 CLT vs. traditional language teaching Authoritarian teaching style (59% of the teachers) clear rules and goals > learning if too much control to the students > non-learning; Democratic teaching style (33% of the teachers) to enable the students to participate and to assume more responsibility (Lehtinen, 2009 / Pedagogical thesis) Harjanne & Tella

34 34 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 34 Conclusions from research on Finnish FL classrooms The results are in line with many international research results (e.g,. Karavas- Doukas, 1996; D. Li, 1998; Sato & Kleinsasser, 1999) : Most second language (L2) teachers claim to use CLT approach Communicative FL classrooms still seem to be in the minority (teaching still being teacher-centred and focused on grammar) (Gatbonton & Segalowitz, 2005) Harjanne & Tella

35 35 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 35 Conclusions from research on Finnish FL classrooms The language tasks used mirror the teachers views on FL proficiency, teaching, studying and learning. The language tasks used seem to have a decisive role on defining what happens in FL classrooms. Harjanne & Tella

36 36 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 36 CLT vs. traditional language teaching Tasks KIELO KIELO research What kind of tasks do the exercise books in French at lower secondary school include in Finland, Sweden and Canada? Task classification modified on basis of Nunan (1989), Skehan (1998) and Littlewood (2004) Harjanne & Tella

37 37 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 37 Tasks in French A Finnish book (132 tasks) A Swedish book (390 tasks) A Canadian book (295 tasks) Non- communicative 49.2%62.6%49.8% Pre- communicative 37.1%32.1%38.3% Communicative13.6%5.4%11.9% Harjanne & Tella

38 38TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 38 Why do FL teachers prefer traditional (teacher-centred, focus on grammar) language teaching? Its hard for the FL teachers used to teach grammatical rules and isolated words and word lists, to see that communicative tasks improve learning (Gatbonton & Segalowitz, 2005) The FL teachers beliefs determine their teaching crucially (e.g., Borg, 2006) Misunderstandings of communicative language teaching and of a communicative task: Misunderstandings of communicative language teaching and of a communicative task: Purely oral practice, no grammar teaching or practising Harjanne & Tella

39 39 TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 39 KIELO KIELO research on teaching and study practices in Finnish FL classrooms is continued… What, how and why? Harjanne & Tella

40 40TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 40 Alanen, R. (2000). Kolmannen muodon tapaus: Miten kieliopista puhutaan englannin kielen luokassa. [The case of the third form: How grammar is discussed in English classroom.] Teoksessa P. Kalaja & L. Nieminen (toim.), Kielikoulussa – kieli koulussa (ss. 139–163). AFinLAn vuosikirja, 58. Jyväskylä: Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistys AFinLA. Allwright, D. (2000). Exploratory Practice: an 'appropriate methodology' for language teacher development? Paper presented at the 8th IALS Symposium for Language Teacher educators, Edinburgh, Scotland, Politics, Policy and Culture in Language Teacher education. Allwright, D. (2003). Exploratory practice: Rethinking practitioner research in language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 7(2), 113–141. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from http://ltr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/2/11 http://ltr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/2/11 Allwright, D. & Hanks, J. (2009). The Developing Language Learner. An Introduction to Exploratory Practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [Communicativeness in the exercises of the textbooks of French in Finland, Sweden and Canada]. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Bergman, J., Oksanen, H., & Veikkolainen, K. (2009). Viestinnällisyys ranskan oppikirjojen tehtävissä Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Kanadassa. Pedagoginen tutkielma. [Communicativeness in the exercises of the textbooks of French in Finland, Sweden and Canada]. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Breen, M. (2001). Navigating the discourse: on what is learned in the language classroom. In Candlin, C. & Mercer, N. (eds.) English language teaching in its social context. London: Routledge, 306–322. Brown, D. H. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. 2nd edition. San Francisco, CA: State University. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (2005). Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(3), 325–353. [But hey, this aint bout Midsummer!Communicative oral practice in Swedish through collaborative schema-based and elaboration tasks]. University of Helsinki. Department of Applied Sciences of Education. Research Report 273. Available at http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/kay/sovel/vk/harjanne/ Harjanne, P. (2006). Mut ei tää oo hei midsommarista! – ruotsin kielen viestinnällinen suullinen harjoittelu yhteistoiminnallisten skeema- ja elaborointitehtävien avulla. [But hey, this aint bout Midsummer!Communicative oral practice in Swedish through collaborative schema-based and elaboration tasks]. University of Helsinki. Department of Applied Sciences of Education. Research Report 273. Available at http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/kay/sovel/vk/harjanne/ http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/kay/sovel/vk/harjanne/ Hinkkanen, H.-M., & Säde, A.-M. (2003). Puhutaanko kielestä vai kielellä? Tapaustutkimus englannin kielen tunnilla käytetyn kielen kohteista, sisällöistä ja merkityksistä. [Shall we talk about a foreign language or in a foreign language? A case study of the targets, content and meanings of the language used in English lessons].Kasvatustieteen pro gradu -tutkielma. Opettajankoulutuslaitos, Jyväskylän yliopisto. [Masters thesis]. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/10443/G0000201.pdf?sequence=1 https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/10443/G0000201.pdf?sequence=1 Harjanne & Tella References

41 41TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 41 Jalkanen, L., & Ruuska, J. (2007). Affektiiviset tekijät vieraan kielen opiskelussa:. Tapaustutkimus alakoulun englannin tunneista oppilaiden kokemana. [The affective factors in studying a foreign language: A case study of the English lessons in the primary school as experienced by the pupils]. Kasvatustieteen pro gradu -tutkielma. [Masters thesis]. Jyväskylän yliopisto. Opettajankoulutuslaitos. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/10684/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-2007883.pdf?sequence=1 https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/10684/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-2007883.pdf?sequence=1 [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Järnberg, M. (2009). Opettajan suomen kielen käyttö ja siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä yläkoulun englannin tunneilla. [The English teachers use of the mother tongue on the lessons and the reasons for that at lower secondary school.] Pedagoginen tutkielma. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Karavas-Doukas, E. (1996). Using attitude scales to investigate teachers' attitudes to the communicative approach. ELT Journal, 50, 187–198. [A primary school pupils views on choosing a third foreign language]. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Keskinen, N. (2009). Peruskoululaisten käsityksiä kolmannen kielen valinnasta. [A primary school pupils views on choosing a third foreign language]. Pedagoginen tutkielma. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] [English, pleaseThe teachers use of the target language and the mother tongue in English lessons]. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Kuoppala, M.-K. (2009). English, please – Kohdekieli ja äidinkieli opettajan käyttämänä englannin oppitunnilla. [English, pleaseThe teachers use of the target language and the mother tongue in English lessons]. Tapaustutkimus Helsingin yliopiston normaalikouluissa. Pedagoginen tutkielma. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Lehtinen, J. (2009). Perusopetuksen kieltenopettajien suosimat opetusmuodot, -tyylit ja -strategiat oppitunnilla. Pedagoginen tutkielma. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Li, D. (1998). It's always more difficult than you plan and imagine: Teachers' perceived difficulties in introducing the communicative approach in South Korea. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 677–703. [Features of the communicative tasks in foreign language lessons. A case study of a university of applied sciences]. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Naumanen, A. (2009). Viestinnällisten tehtävien piirteitä vieraiden kielten oppitunneilla. Tapaustutkimus ammattikorkeakoulusta. [Features of the communicative tasks in foreign language lessons. A case study of a university of applied sciences]. Pedagoginen tutkielma. Aineenopettajankoulutus. Soveltavan kasvatustieteen laitos. Helsingin yliopisto. [Pedagogical thesis, unpublished.] Nikula, T. (2007). The IRF pattern and space for interaction: Comparing CLIL and EFL classrooms. In C. Dalton-Puffer & U. Smit (Eds.), Empirical Perspectives on CLIL Classroom Discourse (pp. 179–204). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pollard, A. (2002). Reflective teaching: Effective and evidence-informed professional practice. London: Continuum. Reini, J. (2008). The Functions of Teachers Language Choice and Code-switching in EFL Classroom Discourse. Masters thesis in English. Department of Languages. University of Jyväskylä. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/18639/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-200806115441.pdf?sequence=1 Reini, J. (2008). The Functions of Teachers Language Choice and Code-switching in EFL Classroom Discourse. Masters thesis in English. Department of Languages. University of Jyväskylä. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/18639/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-200806115441.pdf?sequence=1 https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/18639/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-200806115441.pdf?sequence=1 Harjanne & Tella

42 42TBLT 2009 Harjanne & Tella 42 Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ropponen, M. (2006). Draama alakoulun kommunikatiivisessa englanninopetuksessa. [Drama in communicative teaching of English at primary school.] Masters thesis. Department of teacher education. University of Jyväskylä. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-2006365 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-2006365 Sato, K., & Kleinsasser, R. C. (1999). Communicative language teaching (CLT): Practical understandings. Modern Language Journal, 83, 494–517. Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching 36, 1–14. The assessment of pupils' skills in English in eight European countries (2002). A European Project commissioned by The European network of policy makers for the evaluation of education systems. (Edited by Gérard Bonnet.) Retrieved April 18, 2009, from http://cisad.adc.education.fr/reva/pdf/assessmentofenglish.pdf.http://cisad.adc.education.fr/reva/pdf/assessmentofenglish.pdf Turunen, N. (2007). The nature of EFL conversation in classroom and net-based learning environment. Masters thesis. Department of languages. University of Jyväskylä. https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/7263/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-2007410.pdf?sequence=1 https://jyx.jyu.fi/dspace/bitstream/handle/123456789/7263/URN_NBN_fi_jyu-2007410.pdf?sequence=1 van Lier, L. (2000). From input to affordance: Social-interactive learning from an ecological perspective. In Lantolf, J. P. (ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 245–259. Harjanne & Tella


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