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Educating the Next Generation of Medical Professionals Helen OSullivan Centre for Excellence in Developing Professionalism Medical School.

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Presentation on theme: "Educating the Next Generation of Medical Professionals Helen OSullivan Centre for Excellence in Developing Professionalism Medical School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educating the Next Generation of Medical Professionals Helen OSullivan Centre for Excellence in Developing Professionalism Medical School

2 Outline of my talk Introduction: what is medical professionalism? Introduction: what is medical professionalism? Why has medical professionalism become so prominent? Why has medical professionalism become so prominent? How do we develop professionalism in medical undergraduates – The Liverpool Professional How do we develop professionalism in medical undergraduates – The Liverpool Professional Can we assess professionalism? Can we assess professionalism? Questions and discussion Questions and discussion

3 What is Medical Professionalism? Medical professionalism signifies a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. Medical professionalism signifies a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the trust the public has in doctors. RCP, Doctors in Society, 2005 RCP, Doctors in Society, 2005 From the US, David Stern has defined professionalism graphically: From the US, David Stern has defined professionalism graphically:

4 Clinical Competence (Knowledge of Medicine) Communication Skills Ethical and Legal Understanding ExcellenceHumanismAccountabilityAltruism Professionalism Arnold and Stern, 2006

5 Hilton and Slotnik (2005) Suggest six domains in which evidence of professionalism can be expected: Suggest six domains in which evidence of professionalism can be expected: Personal (intrinsic) attributes: Ethical practice Ethical practice Reflection and self awareness Reflection and self awareness Responsibility/accountability for actions Responsibility/accountability for actions Co-operative attributes: Respect for patients Respect for patients Working with others Working with others Social responsibility Social responsibility

6 Introduces us to phronesis and proto-professionalism

7 Emergence of Professionalism Combination of lapses of professionalism and growing realisation of importance of developing those skills and attributes in undergraduate programmes. Combination of lapses of professionalism and growing realisation of importance of developing those skills and attributes in undergraduate programmes. Requirement for students to demonstrate the development of professionalism in courses regulated by the GMC Requirement for students to demonstrate the development of professionalism in courses regulated by the GMC

8 GMC Regulate Medical Curricula The principles of Good Medical Practice must underpin medical education: The principles of Good Medical Practice must underpin medical education: Good clinical care Good clinical care Maintaining good medical practice Maintaining good medical practice Relationships with patients Relationships with patients Working with colleagues Working with colleagues Teaching and training Teaching and training Probity Probity Health Health

9 Professionalism and the Liverpool Curriculum Recent review of the curriculum had as its starting point: Recent review of the curriculum had as its starting point: Are Lifelong learners Are Lifelong learners Have the ability to exercise leadership skills and professional values Have the ability to exercise leadership skills and professional values Possess appropriate knowledge and skills to deliver patient care and practise evidence-based medicine Possess appropriate knowledge and skills to deliver patient care and practise evidence-based medicine Aspire to academic excellence Aspire to academic excellence

10 Professionalism has been a key feature of the curriculum for several years Professionalism has been a key feature of the curriculum for several years Excellence recognised with the award of the CETL in Excellence recognised with the award of the CETL in 2005.

11 The Liverpool Professional ValuesPatientDemeanourLeadershipPersonalMotivation Ethics Integrity FTP GMC Human rights Empathy Comm Respect Appropriate manner Attire Comm Internet image People management Teaching Comm Teamwork Leadership theory Critical thinking Life-long learning Career management Action planning Reflective practice Excellence Self management Altruism Public service Social responsibility Caring Patient interest/advocacy Being part of a community of care privilege to help

12 Can you Measure and assess professionalism ? Arnold 2002 Arnold 2002 Suggested that there are three main ways of assessing professionalism: Suggested that there are three main ways of assessing professionalism: Assessing component parts (e.g. communication) Assessing component parts (e.g. communication) Assessing professionalism as part of clinical practice Assessing professionalism as part of clinical practice Assessing professionalism as a comprehensive entity Assessing professionalism as a comprehensive entity comprehensive entity Difficult, complex comprehensive entity Difficult, complex

13 Key Components of an Assessment Strategy Integrated Integrated Authentic Authentic Promote excellence Promote excellence Challenges: Challenges: Dont simply measure that which is easy to measure Dont simply measure that which is easy to measure Language and sensitivity Language and sensitivity The hidden curriculum The hidden curriculum Measuring attitudes and behaviour Measuring attitudes and behaviour Dont focus on FTP Dont focus on FTP

14 Measuring Attitudes and Behaviour Difficult/ impossible to measure attitudes Difficult/ impossible to measure attitudes Can measure: Can measure: Expressions of belief and behavioural intentions Expressions of belief and behavioural intentions Behavioural responses, physiological responses Behavioural responses, physiological responses Skills Skills Observable behaviour Observable behaviour

15 Examples from our work: The Liverpool Professional Introduce an Annual Student Feedback Appraisal Introduce an Annual Student Feedback Appraisal Developing our outcomes into a electronic resource that students can use as a annual self audit and preparation for appraisal Developing our outcomes into a electronic resource that students can use as a annual self audit and preparation for appraisal Using social networking philosophy to engage students with reflection and professionalism Using social networking philosophy to engage students with reflection and professionalism

16 What evidence do the students bring to the appraisal? (Yr 1) Formative examination results; Formative examination results; Multi source feedback comprising contributions from: Multi source feedback comprising contributions from: PBL Tutors PBL Tutors Clinical Skills Tutors Clinical Skills Tutors Communications Skills Tutors Communications Skills Tutors Peers Peers A structured reflective piece that they have written for their PDP A structured reflective piece that they have written for their PDP A short task related to career management A short task related to career management A self assessment of their current progress towards The Liverpool Professional A self assessment of their current progress towards The Liverpool Professional

17 References Sean R Hilton, Henry B Slotnick (2005) Proto-professionalism: how professionalisation occurs across the continuum of medical education Medical Education 39 (1), 58–65. Sean R Hilton, Henry B Slotnick (2005) Proto-professionalism: how professionalisation occurs across the continuum of medical education Medical Education 39 (1), 58–65. Arnold, Louise (2002) Assessing Professional Behavior: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Academic Medicine. 77(6): Arnold, Louise (2002) Assessing Professional Behavior: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Academic Medicine. 77(6): Arnold, L. & Stern, D. T. (2006) What is Medical Professionalism?. IN STERN, D. T. (Ed.) Measuring Medical Professionalism.. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Arnold, L. & Stern, D. T. (2006) What is Medical Professionalism?. IN STERN, D. T. (Ed.) Measuring Medical Professionalism.. Oxford, Oxford University Press. The Royal College of Physicians Doctors in Society, RCP London, December 2005 The Royal College of Physicians Doctors in Society, RCP London, December 2005


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