Presentation on theme: "Assessing Ethics in CbDs Hasna Begum. Workshop Format o Small groups: Fact-Finding Exercise o How do people do it at the moment? o Examples of good practice."— Presentation transcript:
Workshop Format o Small groups: Fact-Finding Exercise o How do people do it at the moment? o Examples of good practice. o What do people find difficult? o Ethics theory – Frameworks, Values, Assessment o Group work: case discussions - how to incorporate into practice 2
RCGP Rationale for Ethics o Professional Codes of Conduct – incorporates some ethical principles o Minimum standards o Limits of accepted professional behaviour o Application and interpretation to specific cases or situations o Identify ethical issues in practice o Evaluate moral justification for different courses of actions o Make appropriate and justifiable decisions
Health Professional Professional Codes of Conduct Decisio n- making Case Specifics Personal Values Wider Societal Values Evidence
The Clinical Encounter Each healthcare encounter is informed by Facts: history, examination findings, investigation results evidence of effectiveness of treatment options. Values of ALL those involved in the encounter Moral, cultural and aesthetic values Often implicit rather than explicitly articulated 5
Clinical Ethics and Values Based Practice GPs must: Understand the ethical and legal framework within which they practise Identify ethical issues that arise in day-to-day practice Recognise the relevant values of all those involved Demonstrate the moral reasoning on which their decisions are based
Four Principles Beauchamp and Childress (1970s) Respect for autonomy Beneficence Non maleficence Justice All of equal importance Codes of conduct generally in keeping with these principles
In the GMC context GMC guidanceRespect for Autonomy BeneficenceNon- maleficence Justic e Duty of confidence Public interest Disclosures Informed consent Safeguarding Mental capacity Providing good clinical care Access to medical care Conduct of colleagues
Values What do we mean by this? A value is a standard – typically shared by others in a given community – for judging the goodness or badness of some thing or some action. Values have moral implications. Separate from preferences.
Moral Theory Deontology The science of duty The morality of an action is intrinsic to the action itself rather than the consequences Most societies rely somewhat on these kinds of moral rules Utilitarianism The greatest happiness of the greatest number People should act in a way that brings about the best overall outcome The goodness of any outcome depends on the amount of happiness realised
Jim and the Tribespeople Jim is an anthropologist, and one day, deep in the Amazon, he comes across a tribe. The chief is about to execute a group of ten people from his tribe, who were chosen at random. The chief hails Jim and says, You are a guest amongst us and in order to honour you, I will allow you to save nine of these ten people. All you have to do is pick one for execution and the other nine will go free. If you do not choose one, then all ten will die. If you were Jim, what would you do?
Trainers task In the discussion you need to elicit from your trainee: 1.Their understanding of the ethical dimensions to the case 2.The relevance of professional codes of conduct (if appropriate) 3.The values of the individuals involved (themselves included) 4.How all of the above impacted on their decision making
Eliciting the Information Ask questions that will ELICIT: Ethical dimensions to the case Relevance of codes of conduct Values of the individuals involved Impact on decision making
Assessing the Information Competence Framework Competence No. 11: Maintaining an ethical approach to practice – practising ethically with integrity and a respect for diversity Blooms taxonomy: knowledge, skills, attitudes
NFDCompetentExcellent Knowledge What your trainee knows Recognises that people are different. Observes professional codes of practice. Identifies ethical conflicts in clinical practice. Anticipates and avoids situations where personal and professional interests might be brought into conflict. Skills What your trainee does Treats patients, colleagues and others equitably and with respect for their beliefs, preferences, dignity and rights. Discusses ethical conflicts in clinical practice. Takes action to address prejudice, oppression and unfair discrimination within the self, other individuals and within systems. Actively promotes equality of opportunity for patients to access health care and for individuals to achieve their potential. Attitude What your trainee thinks and feels Does not discriminate against people because of their differences. Shows awareness of own values, attitudes and ethics and how these might influence professional behaviour. Recognises prejudice, oppression and unfair discrimination within the self, other individuals and within systems. Values diversity by harnessing differences between people for the benefit of practice and patients alike.