Motivation is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation. Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive. The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times.
The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal. Three key elements: ◦ Intensity – how hard a person tries ◦ Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals ◦ Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort
Physiological: the need for food, sleep, water, air, and sex [ survival] Security: the need for safety, family, stability, and economic security [ physical and emotional safety] Social or affiliation: the need to belong, to interact with others, to have friends, and to love and be loved [ love and affection and a sense of belonging]
Esteem: the need for respect and recognition of others [ respect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worth] Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s potential, to grow, to be creative, and to accomplish [ to grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being]
Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.
Theory X, 4 assumptions held by managers: - Employees inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it - Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals - Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible - Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition
Theory Y, 4 assumptions held by managers: - Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play - People will exercise self-direction & self control if they are committed to the objectives - The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility - The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population
Motivator Factors : Pertained to the content of the job; e.g. career advancement, recognition, achievement, sense of responsibility Hygiene Factors : Stemmed from the context in which the job was performed, e.g. job security, company policies, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary – when these factors adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.
Motivator Factors (Sources of Job Satisfaction and Motivation) Hygiene Factors (Sources of Job Dissatisfaction; Neutral to Motivation) o Challenge of the work itself o Responsibility o Recognition o Achievement o Job advancement and professional growth o Physical working condition o Company policies o Quality of supervision o Coworker relationships o Salary o Status o Job security o Benefits
McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation: The desire to friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Need for Power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved
◦ Need for achievement (nAch). The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. ◦ Need for affiliation (nAff). The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. ◦ Need for power (nPower). The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
A theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation. Meaning, people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation.
A version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling. EG: When people are paid for work, it feels less like something they want to do and more like something they have to do.
For individuals, it means choose your job for reasons other than extrinsic rewards. For organizations, it means managers should provide intrinsic as well as extrinsic incentives. They need to make the work interesting, provide recognition, and support employee growth and development.
The theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals; and that feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.
1.Challenging goals get our attention and thus tend to help us focus. 2.Difficult goals energize us because we have to work harder to attain them. 3.When goals are difficult, people persist in trying to attain them. 4.Difficult goals lead us to discover strategies that help us perform the job or task more effectively.
Goal Setting Theory Function of Goals basis of motivation direct behavior For goals to be effective –individuals must be aware of goals –must accept the goals Factors that influence effectiveness of goal setting –goals must be specific –goals should be difficult but attainable
Guidelines for SMART Goals S S pecific M M easurable A A ttainable R R esults oriented T T ime bound Give feedback regularly!
Self-efficacy (also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory) refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed.
Four ways self-efficacy can be increased: 1. Enactive mastery 2. Vicarious modeling 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Arousal
1. Enactive mastery – gaining relevant experience with the task or job. 2. Vicarious modeling – becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task. 3. Verbal persuasion – becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful. 4. Arousal – Arousal leads to an energized state, so the person gets “psyched up” and performs better.
Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get it A theory that says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
◦ Determine the primary outcome each employee wants. ◦ Decide what levels and kinds of performance are needed to meet organizational goals. ◦ Make sure the desired levels of performance are possible. ◦ Link desired outcomes and desired performance.
1. Define motivation. 2. What is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? Explain how you can use the theory to motivate your workers. 3. Discuss two-factor theory. 4. “Expectancy theory offers a powerful explanation of performance variables such as employee productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.” Do you agree? Why or why not?