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Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities Jacqueline Scott University of Cambridge.

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Presentation on theme: "Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities Jacqueline Scott University of Cambridge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quantitative Methods and Gender Inequalities Jacqueline Scott University of Cambridge

2 Outline 1. Consider whether early feminist opposition to quantitative research makes sense 2. Introduce the ESRC Research Priority Network on Gender Inequalities (GeNet) as an exemplar 3. Discuss the diverse methodologies of GeNet against a fit for purpose evaluative framework 4. Consider challenges posed by understanding intersectionalities in gender research 5. Identify how qualitative methods used to inform and sharpen the ways quantitative researchers count

3 Feminism in 1970s /1980s Emphasis on making women visible in social sciences and giving voice Concern about objectivity & impersonal knowledge being all too biased Challenge to essentialist arguments about natural differences between men and women Championing of qualitative over quantitative

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6 The difference gender makes Shift from women to gender Gender as analytical category – gendered processes..inclusive of male and females.. Inequalities both between men and woman and also within men and women Intersectionalities gender, race, class, age.. More nuanced understanding

7 ESRC Gender Equality Network Research Priority Network on Gender Inequalities in Production & Reproduction

8 Background Demise of male breadwinner family - labour market changes/changes in parenting partnership Paradigm shift in gender relations Greater policy recognition of equality although policies ambiguous Some human capital convergence but inequalities persistent

9 9 Linked Projects 3 Inter-related themes Pathways to Adult Attainment & Life Course Processes Changing occupations and careers of women and men Biographical agency and developmental outcomes Gendered pathways from childhood disadvantage to adulthood Gender, time allocation in paid and unpaid work & the wage gap Resources, Gender, Ethnic & Class Inequalities Within-household inequalities in income and power Gender, ethnicity, migration and service employment Class & gender, employment and family Policy Responses to Gender Inequalities Addressing gender inequality through corporate governance Policy initiatives tackling inequalities in work and care in UK & EU

10 3 different methodologies Pathways to Adult Attainment & Life Course Processes QUANTITATIVE LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS - unpacking gendered processes and changes across time Longitudinal analysis of cohort differences in occupations and careers (Shirley Dex and Heather Joshi) Childhood and adolescent transitions to adulthood across cohorts (Ingrid Schoon) Gendered pathways from childhood disadvantage to adulthood across cohorts (Wendy Sigle- Ruston and John Hobcraft) Gender, time allocation in paid and unpaid work & the wage gap using the BHPS (Gershuny) Resources, Gender, Ethnic & Class Inequalities MIXED METHODS (qualitative unpacking the specific context; quantitative providing estimates of sub-group differences within the population) Within-household inequalities in income and power (Himmelweit, Sutherland and Bennett) Gender, ethnicity, migration and service employment (McDowell) Class & gender, employment and family (Crompton ) Policy Responses to Gender Inequalities QUALITATIVE – semi-structured interviewing; documentary analysis Addressing gender inequality through corporate governance (Deakin) Policy initiatives tackling inequalities in work and care in UK & EU (Lewis)

11 Inter-twining of theory, empirical research and methodology GeNet has explicit goal of promoting highest possible methodological standards in its own gender research and contributing to ESRCs various methodological and training initiatives that are concerned to raise standards of social science generally Is there a feminist method? No – what matters for feminist research is fit for purpose and feminist research is sufficiently broad-ranging that it spans quantitative and qualitative divides

12 Questions requiring quantitative analysis ( Source: Joshi and Pacci 1998) Pay gap narrowing for those aged 26 (enhanced human capital and labour market experience + Equal Pay Act 1970 & 75)

13 Masculinization of Female Life Course (UK Cohort effects: Participation- Joshi et al 2005)

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15 The combined effects of various factors on the gender difference in annual earnings of 1995 graduates seven years after graduation

16 Time-use investigation (Gershuny et al) Hypothesis: substantial part of gender gap in wages that persists beyond operation of work- place equal opportunities can be explained in terms of day-to-day practices of unequal division of production and caring activities in household. Data: British Household Panel and Harmonised European Time Use

17 Time use by family change: Women aged (Gershuny 2004)

18 Time use by family change: Men aged (Gershuny 2004)

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20 Lagged adaptation Over the long term women who carry dual burden have choices – suffer, argue, quit Not much of real choice – so what happens? Over time, women and mens share of domestic division of labour becomes more equal, with women reducing unpaid work immediately, but mens take up of home chores taking longer and being less reliable

21 time on work (mins of day) nethsUKUSASweden W Germ Core domestic work Male Female Other unpaid work Male Female Paid work Male Female Total work Male Female

22 Range of models of work-family balance ModelDescriptionPoliciesCountries Adult worker model a) Supported b) Unsupported Lone parents & low earners Gender neutral Childcare Work benefits Tax credits Model encouraged in EU UK since 1999 USA Nordic gender Differentiated adult worker Equality allowing for difference Cash support for parental leave; care relief; parental leave provision Sweden & to lesser extent other Scandinavian Gender equality based on female model Male and female reduced hours Netherlands


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