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Analyzing Intersectionality of Inequalities in Employment Wendy Sigle-Rushton* and Diane Perrons** *Department of Social Policy **Gender Institute London.

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Presentation on theme: "Analyzing Intersectionality of Inequalities in Employment Wendy Sigle-Rushton* and Diane Perrons** *Department of Social Policy **Gender Institute London."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analyzing Intersectionality of Inequalities in Employment Wendy Sigle-Rushton* and Diane Perrons** *Department of Social Policy **Gender Institute London School of Economics and Political Science GENDER, CLASS, EMPLOYMENT AND FAMILY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE City University, London, March 27-28th, 2008

2 Motivation Context: globalisation and rising inequality inequality and gender inequality gender inequality and other forms of difference Theory: feminist theorising of complex differences Analysis: how do we conceptualise difference in empirical work? adopting the inter-categorical approach

3 Globalisation (Increasing Trade) and Economic Restructuring (Changing Composition of Employment) Overall inequality (rising) Gender inequality (enduring) Skill biased technological change/finance Superstar effect Skill debates Productivity and employment forms/ domestic labour Difference between women Intersectionality Employment De-/re- regulation Gender regimes/ wage structures GM and GPG Individual – gender deficit/structural explanations EO/Diversity Policies as performances ? Social norms Individualisati on/ zombie categories Gendering/ethnici sing of social norms Performativity/- gendered/ethnicis ed/racialised social practices

4 Intersectionality Feminist critique of using gender, class, or ethnicity as single analytic categories. Different social divisions are mutually modifying and reinforcing. How to analyse forms of difference (that) are lived relationally ? (Moore 1994)

5 Methodological Approaches McCalls (2005) typology Anti-categorical Intra-categorical Inter-categorical

6 Methodological Approaches McCalls (2005) typology Anti-categorical: desconstructionist, draws on post-modern and post-structural theories Intra-categorical Inter-categorical:

7 Methodological Approaches McCalls (2005) typology Anti-categorical Intra-categorical: focuses on differences that cut across one particular category of interest Inter-categorical

8 Methodological Approaches McCalls (2005) typology Anti-categorical Intra-categorical Inter-categorical: focuses on how analytically defined categorical difference intersects in practice

9 Methodological Approaches McCalls (2005) typology Anti-categorical: most common Intra-categorical: qualitative research Inter-categorical: most amenable to quantitative analyses

10 Applying the Inter-Categorical Approach Applying a more inter-sectional approach requires a large number of observations can result in extremely complex tables of results can uncover important differences that would be masked by more traditional models Various possibilities: cluster analysis classification trees Look back to classical demography Make the most of existing samples pseudo-cohorts

11 Analysing Intersectionality in UK Labour Market Data repeated cross sections from spring quarters LFS sample: women aged dependent variable: employed at the time of interview controls year of interview age in years (dummies, 19 reference category) ethnic group partnership status* education* number of children born (1-4+)* time since birth of last 4 children and time squared* Method logit models

12 Simulation 1: Predicted Probability of Employment for Low Educated Women, Aged 25 in 1993 Who Partner At Age 28 and Have One Child At Age 30

13 Simulation 2: Predicted Probability of Employment for Highly Educated Women, Aged 25 in 1993 Who Partner At Age 28 and Have One Child At Age 30 and a Second Child at Age 33, Selected Ethnic Groups

14 Making Sense of/Contextualising Empirical Findings Overall inequality (rising) Gender inequality (enduring) Skill biased technological change/finance Superstar effect Skill debates Productivity and employment forms/ domestic labour Difference between women Intersectionality Employment De-/re- regulation Gender regimes/ wage structures GM and GPG Individual – gender deficit/structural explanations EO/Diversity Policies as performances ? Social norms Individualisati on/ zombie categories Gendering/ethnici sing of social norms Performativity/- gendered/ethnicis ed social practices

15 Summary Issues raised in the literature on intersectionality have travelled but in selective ways have not had a great influence on quantitative methodologies Applying a more inter-sectional approach allows description and documentation of differences as they are lived provides a basis for wider association (e.g. McCall geographical association) can run the risk of attributing causality to identity – so needs to be contextualised and linked to other explanations

16 References to the EOC studies Sigle-Ruston and Perrons D (2006) Employment transitions over the lifecycle: a statistical analysis Perrons D and Sigle-Ruston W (2006) Employment transitions over the lifecycle: a literature review The background to and some further information about the empirical analysis can be found in the above reports.


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