3Project management Over the course we will look at: Projects and their features.The project Life Cycle, Project Planning and the Project Manager’s role.Over a dozen different tools and techniques for effective project management.
4Self Study (aka Homework) You will have a go at using the tools and techniques both in class and through homework, self-study which will be set at the end of each taught session. You’ll need to allow a few hours each week to ‘do’ the self-study homework.
5Self-study (aka homework) For this Project Management module it is really important for you to do the homework after each session, and before the next session. Project management is a practical as well as theoretical subject. Unless you practice, through the homework, the tools and techniques which we cover in the sessions, you will not fully learn the skills of effective project management.
6Project Management - pitfalls One of the pitfalls with project management is that there is a lot of jargon which can be used: Gantt Charts, network diagrams, activity on the arrow diagrams, critical path analysis, work breakdown structures, PERT, project scheduling, precedence diagrams, dependency diagrams, et cetera. This course will keep jargon to a minimum.
7An introduction to Project management This module will look at the tried and trusted tools and techniques of project management, the ones which actually work!Will also be doing some practical exercises; you learn effective project management by working on real life projects; it is not something you can learn just from reading a book.We will not be looking at Microsoft project
8Programme for today Introductions and Expectations Concepts of Project ManagementSimulated project – ScopingComfort break ?Simulated project – StakeholdersSimulated project – Success CriteriaSummary and close
9Why do we need project management tools & techniques? Because we live in a world of limited resources and not enough time.There will always be more to do than time and resources will allow.Project Management tool & techniques, if used regularly & appropriately, help us make more effective use of our time.
10Introductions and Expectations Who are you?name, job and responsibilitieswhat do you consider to be your strengths in the work environment (e.g. decisive, good communicator, assertive, good at empathising, good listener, etc)What previous experience do you have of managing projects?What are your expectations from today?
11The aims for today’s session To clarify what we mean by the term ‘project’To introduce you to some of the tools to begin defining and managing projectsTo give you the chance to try out some of these tools
12Project managementConcepts, Terms and Definitions.
13What does the term ‘project’ mean to you? Class group exerciseWhat does the term ‘project’ mean to you and your group?What do you and your group think of or associate with the term ‘project’?
14Definition of project“An activity with a fixed start and end point, managed with finite resources, involving change and often achieved by the collective effort of the team of people”(IPM)
15Another definition of a project “A set of temporary activities conducted by ad hoc organisations” (D. Olson, 2001)
16Another definition of a project “ …..an endeavour in which the human (or machine), material and financial resources organised in a novel way, to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, within constraints of cost and time,so as to deliver beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives” (R.Turner 1995)
17Yet another definition of project “A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities. Having one goal or purpose that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification” (Artto, 2002)
18Project Management – a definition ? Project Management might be defined as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet (or exceed?) stakeholder needs and expectations from the project”
19Features of a project A start and a finish Is a unique activity with a visible outputMay involve uncertainty and riskInvolves a team coming together specifically for the projectA budgetNon repetitive tasks, sequential orderUse of resources (including human resources)A single point of ultimate responsibilityClearly defined team rolesClear aims, objectives, goals
20Terms often confused with ‘project’ Process – a series of steps needed to perform a routine activity (e.g. purchasing). A project may contain many processes.Programme – work performed towards achieving a long term goal (e.g. a health awareness programme). Programmes may never achieve all their goals, and may comprise a series of projects.
21Examples of types of project and their size Individual – decorating your bedroomGroup – organising a weddingOrganisation – construction company, building the Millennium bridge in LondonProject Organisation – creation of a separate independent organisation specifically for accomplishing a particular project, e.g. the Olympic games committeeMultinational – design construction of Concorde
22The project life cycleNOTE - We will be referring to this simple model throughout the rest of the course
23Project Life Cycle (At its Simplest) PLANDOREVIEWPlaaaaaaaaan-DoPlan-Do-Plan-Do-Plan-DoOr Plan-Do, Re-plan, Re-do
24Project Life Cycle Conception Phase (The Idea) Definition Phase (The Plan)Initiation Phase (The Team)PLANImplementation Phase (The Work)DOEvaluation Phase (The Wrap-up)REVIEW
25We will now consider each stage and what it involves
26The Conception phase – the idea Essentially - What are we going to do?For small projects an informal discussion might adequateFor larger projects, a more formal review and discussion processes required.Key questions to answer should be:Should you do it? What is the benefit and do the benefits outweigh the costs?Can you do it? Is it technically feasible and are there enough resources?
27So…………Let’s get started That temptation at this point is to get started (after minimal planning). This is the traditional British approach.It gives the appearance of immediate activity and progress. We are busy ‘doing’.But it leads to mistakes and waste.We end up with Plan-Do, Do-Re-Do, Re- plan, Re-Do, RE-Do, Re-Plan etc
28Project Life Cycle Consequently… So we... Projects over runs Cost too muchDon’t achieve desired resultSo we...Hunt for the guiltyPersecute the innocentPromote the uninvolved
29But I am too busy to spend time planning!…Planning allows you to: Ensure that people only work on activities which are needed, and do them correctly the first time, not waste time doing unnecessary activities.Anticipate potential problems and take preventative action to deal with them before they happen.Do things in the right order at the right time, which should prevent things going wrong later.
31The project manager’s adage (a light hearted motto) You can have any two of three things in a project:You can get it done on timeYou can get it done within budgeted costYou can get it done properly/well If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost. If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time.Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do.
32Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations? A study by Hughes (1986) identified three main reasons for projects failing. 1 a lack of understanding of project management tools and an over reliance on project management software 2 communication problems 3 failure to adequately adjust to changes that occur during the course of the project
33Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations? Hughes notes that many managers are apt to lose sight of the project. By focusing on the project management software and managing this rather than the actual project!Michalski (2000) observes that“good communication is the key successful project management”.
34Remember “If you fail to plan, you fail to do”. “Proper Planning Prevents Poor performance”
35So we will use a Project Life Cycle like this Conception Phase (The Idea)Definition Phase (The Plan)Initiation Phase (The Team)PLANImplementation Phase (The Work)DOEvaluation Phase (The Wrap-up)REVIEW
36The Definition phase – the plan Review the reasons for the project.Describing detail what results are to be produced.Create a list of all the work to be performed.Produce a detailed project schedule.Calculate budgets.Describe how risk is to be managed.Identify any assumptions about the project.Identify and define the roles of the project’s team members.
37The Initiation phase – start up Assign people to project roles, ensure they are available when needed. Negotiation may be necessary.Give and explain all tasks to team members.Set up systems and accounts to track personnel information and financial expenditure.Announce the project’s start, what it will produce. When it will start when it will finish
38Implementation phase – the do Doing the tasks as laid out in your planRegularly comparing the actual performance with the plan, knowing and anticipating when things are not going according to scheduleFixing problems that arise.Keeping everyone informed
39The Evaluation phase – the wrap up or review Get the customer’s approval of final results.There may be formal project hand over to the clientComplete any paperwork.Hold a post project evaluation to recognise achievements and discuss lessons learned
40Roles in projects – who is responsible for what? One of the the benefits of project management techniques is the opportunity to clarify roles.Project sponsor – person who’s paying for itProject champion - person who wants to see it happenProject manager – will ensure it happensProject team – will make it happenStakeholders – those affected by it and with an interest in it, but not necessarily part of it.Audience – we’ll consider them later!
41Attributes of an effective project manager Group exerciseWhat you think are the attributes/qualities required to be an effective project manager?
42Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are Excellent time management skills‘Can do’ proactive attitudeAdaptable, flexible.Fair – respecting different people’s viewpointsCommitted to the team and the project’s goalsDecisive and realisticExcellent communication skillsLeadershipAssertiveness
43Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are Be prepared to ‘roll up their sleeves and get their hands dirty’ForesightPlanning skillsKnowledge of the subject / area of workBe prepared to walk, if necessary i.e. leave!A sense of humour ?
44The tools of & for project management There are numerous tools which can be for managing projects, some of them complex, some of them simple.We will look at over a dozen tried and tested tools and techniques which can be used for effective project management.
45Our tools for today QUAD Chart analysis The QUAD chart is a very simple yet extremely effective tool. Project scoping – enables you to define what you do before you start.Stakeholder analysis – simple version helps you understand and manage the different relationships that matter to the project.
46The QUAD chart A very simple yet powerful tool. Used to help us clarify exactly what our project is all about.
48Project Management Simulation Exercise We will carry out a simulated project
49Project Management Simulation Exercise “The Gourmet Breakfast”We are going to use a relatively simple example of something that you should be familiar with in order for you to be able to understand and practice on a real life project.
50The Problem Just got up? Feeling kind of hungry? Fancy a nice breakfast ?What choice do we have?
53Class exercise - Your Mission To produce a simple project plan for producing a full English Breakfast.We will be using this project to illustrate the use of the following:Quad Chart Analysis includingProject ScopingStakeholders and Stakeholder AnalysisDesired Outcomes (Critical Success Factors)Secondary benefits
54Why a breakfast?We will use the Breakfast as it’s a simple example of something where you should all have a similar level of basic knowledge.Let’s view making the breakfast as a project in its own right.It meets most of the criteria for/attributes of a project doesn’t it? Does it? Let’s check
55Attributes of a project A start and a finishIs a unique activityMay involve uncertainty and riskUsually involves a team coming together specifically for the projectA budgetNon repetitive tasksUse of resources (including human resources)A single point of ultimate responsibilityClearly defined team roles
57Guided Tour TITLE OF PROJECT – SNAPPY ACRONYM DESCRIPTOR WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE?WHAT FOR?WHAT IS THE RESULT?WHO IS PROJECT FOR?WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?WHO WILL IT INVOLVE?WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?WHAT CAN BE MEASURED?HOW DO IMEASURE SUCCESS?GOALS!WHAT MAKES THEPROJECT A SUCCESS?
58First a simple example for making a cup of tea. Our first QUAD chart could look something like the one on the next slide
59Example - Make A Cup of Tea To make a cup of tea!1. To make a cup of tea1. The tea maker2. The tea drinkers2. To quench the thirst3. To stimulate the mind
60Example - Make A Cup of Tea To make a cup of tea to quench the thirst and stimulate the mind1. To make a cup of tea1. The tea maker2. The tea drinkers2. To quench the thirst3. To stimulate the mind1. Audible noises of satisfaction from drinkers. Requests for a second cup1. Made an acceptable cup of tea2. Quenched the thirst3. Stimulated the mind2. Increased conversationAbsence of snoring or yawning
63BrainstormingBrainstorming was coined in the 1940s by Alex Osborne a US advertising executive.It works by temporarily removing the social blocks which we all have which prevent us from being creative. Blocks such as:Feeling our ideas will be ridiculedFeeling we don’t know enough to voice an opinionFocusing on simple solutions rather than taking a risk
64BrainstormingBrainstorming is essentially a method for being creative in groups, particularly useful for creative problem solving.‘Popcorning’ is the new name for brainstorming
65The rules of brainstorming No judgement or criticism of an ideaQuantity of ideas is more important than qualityFreewheeling - rapid a spontaneous ideasMutating and combining ideas – one person’s idea stimulates ideas from another personNo answer or idea belongs to a person, they belong to the groupAnswers and ideas must be produced rapidly
66Brainstorming how to do it 1 question or problem is posed2 people in a group take turns to answer3 each suggestion is written down by a note taker4 repeat the process until the group run out of ideas5 Select, filter and choose the most appropriate ideas.
67Your Mission Class exercise To produce a simple project plan QUAD and associated List of Assumptions for approval by Andrew for producing a full English Breakfast.We will do a brainstorm first and then in groups you will have a go at producing a QUAD chart.
68Or You can try one of the following projects if you prefer. Organise a stag do or hen party night outPlan a staff away day social eventPlan a family holiday
69Guided Tour PROJECT NAME SNAPPY ACRONYM WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR?WHAT IS THE RESULT?WHO IS PROJECT FOR?WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?WHO WILL IT INVOLVE?WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?WHAT CAN BE MEASURED?HOW DO IMEASURE SUCCESS?GOALS!WHAT MAKES THEPROJECT A SUCCESS?
70AssumptionsIf we assume too much then we make an ass of you and me (ass u me)So….make a list of assumptions which go with your QUAD chart. Then we can be sure that we, as project manager, have the same base set of assumptions and understandings as everyone else involved in the project.
71Mind your Language !“The project is structured around a multifaceted incremental work plan combining novel content design based on new pedagogical paradigms blended with the e-learning environments to facilitate hybrid mode of delivery”Extract from GENIUS project based at Reading University – one of nominees for a Golden Bull award for gobbledygook from Plain English campaign 2005Make sure you use appropriate language – Plain English is bestPlain English web site also has free guide on alternative words to use
72Stakeholder - definition A stakeholder is, for our purposes at the moment, “a person or organisation who is affected by or impacted by what you are trying to do”This may of course be negatively as well as positively!It includes the members of the Project Team and the Customer(s)
73Stakeholders 4 things to do with them List themTry to understand their likely perspective - how might they react to the project?Assess their relative importanceAct appropriately with the stakeholder throughout the project – identify and decide what action you may need to take
74StakeholdersIn the next session we will look at stakeholders in more detail – and compare stakeholders with audiencesTaking account of them and their views is important to the success of your project.
75Group exerciseProduce a stakeholder analysis chart, using the simple version on the next slide, or the handout.
79Were might we go ? WHAT IS THE MOTIVATION? ETHICS VALUES PASSION SECONDARY BENEFITS(UNMEASURABLE)
80What Does This Give Us? The beginnings of a project definition A document to confirm that what we (as Project Manager) see the project as, is what the Line Manager/Customer was thinking of.Remember we have NOT started ‘doing’ the project yet. We are still planning it.
81Next Session Stakeholders or Audience and categorising them further Risk and how to categorise itClarifying your project’s definitionWe will review the homework self study.
82Your homework self-study Produce your own QUAD chart, either for a project which you are going to do, or for a project which you have completed in the past, or for a project which you are currently working on. Produce a list of assumptions.Once you have done it leave it for 2 days and then review it; and amend it. Save a copy. Keep on re-refining it. Developing a good project definition using the QUAD chart is an iterative process which requires thinking time.Also have a go at doing a simple stakeholder analysis grid
83Homework self-studyRemember that you need to use the tools and techniques in order to learn them and should start practising them. Will be building upon homework in future weeks – it is important that you get started.Also remember that project management requires good time management skills and an ability to work under pressure.
84What if you can’t think of a project? Make up a realistic scenario.For example:Cleaning and servicing your car.Installing a bathroom suiteMarketing a new productDigging up and concreting over the gardenThe choice is yours……