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Introduction to Project Management session 1

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1 Introduction to Project Management session 1


3 Project management Over the course we will look at:
Projects and their features. The project Life Cycle, Project Planning and the Project Manager’s role. Over a dozen different tools and techniques for effective project management.

4 Self Study (aka Homework)
You will have a go at using the tools and techniques both in class and through homework, self-study which will be set at the end of each taught session. You’ll need to allow a few hours each week to ‘do’ the self-study homework.

5 Self-study (aka homework)
For this Project Management module it is really important for you to do the homework after each session, and before the next session. Project management is a practical as well as theoretical subject. Unless you practice, through the homework, the tools and techniques which we cover in the sessions, you will not fully learn the skills of effective project management.

6 Project Management - pitfalls
One of the pitfalls with project management is that there is a lot of jargon which can be used: Gantt Charts, network diagrams, activity on the arrow diagrams, critical path analysis, work breakdown structures, PERT, project scheduling, precedence diagrams, dependency diagrams, et cetera. This course will keep jargon to a minimum.

7 An introduction to Project management
This module will look at the tried and trusted tools and techniques of project management, the ones which actually work! Will also be doing some practical exercises; you learn effective project management by working on real life projects; it is not something you can learn just from reading a book. We will not be looking at Microsoft project

8 Programme for today Introductions and Expectations
Concepts of Project Management Simulated project – Scoping Comfort break ? Simulated project – Stakeholders Simulated project – Success Criteria Summary and close

9 Why do we need project management tools & techniques?
Because we live in a world of limited resources and not enough time. There will always be more to do than time and resources will allow. Project Management tool & techniques, if used regularly & appropriately, help us make more effective use of our time.

10 Introductions and Expectations
Who are you? name, job and responsibilities what do you consider to be your strengths in the work environment (e.g. decisive, good communicator, assertive, good at empathising, good listener, etc) What previous experience do you have of managing projects? What are your expectations from today?

11 The aims for today’s session
To clarify what we mean by the term ‘project’ To introduce you to some of the tools to begin defining and managing projects To give you the chance to try out some of these tools

12 Project management Concepts, Terms and Definitions.

13 What does the term ‘project’ mean to you?
Class group exercise What does the term ‘project’ mean to you and your group? What do you and your group think of or associate with the term ‘project’?

14 Definition of project “An activity with a fixed start and end point, managed with finite resources, involving change and often achieved by the collective effort of the team of people” (IPM)

15 Another definition of a project
“A set of temporary activities conducted by ad hoc organisations” (D. Olson, 2001)

16 Another definition of a project
“ … endeavour in which the human (or machine), material and financial resources organised in a novel way, to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, within constraints of cost and time,so as to deliver beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives” (R.Turner 1995)

17 Yet another definition of project
“A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities. Having one goal or purpose that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification” (Artto, 2002)

18 Project Management – a definition ?
Project Management might be defined as “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet (or exceed?) stakeholder needs and expectations from the project”

19 Features of a project A start and a finish
Is a unique activity with a visible output May involve uncertainty and risk Involves a team coming together specifically for the project A budget Non repetitive tasks, sequential order Use of resources (including human resources) A single point of ultimate responsibility Clearly defined team roles Clear aims, objectives, goals

20 Terms often confused with ‘project’
Process – a series of steps needed to perform a routine activity (e.g. purchasing). A project may contain many processes. Programme – work performed towards achieving a long term goal (e.g. a health awareness programme). Programmes may never achieve all their goals, and may comprise a series of projects.

21 Examples of types of project and their size
Individual – decorating your bedroom Group – organising a wedding Organisation – construction company, building the Millennium bridge in London Project Organisation – creation of a separate independent organisation specifically for accomplishing a particular project, e.g. the Olympic games committee Multinational – design construction of Concorde

22 The project life cycle NOTE - We will be referring to this simple model throughout the rest of the course

23 Project Life Cycle (At its Simplest)
PLAN DO REVIEW Plaaaaaaaaan-Do Plan-Do-Plan-Do-Plan-Do Or Plan-Do, Re-plan, Re-do

24 Project Life Cycle Conception Phase (The Idea)
Definition Phase (The Plan) Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN Implementation Phase (The Work) DO Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) REVIEW

25 We will now consider each stage and what it involves

26 The Conception phase – the idea
Essentially - What are we going to do? For small projects an informal discussion might adequate For larger projects, a more formal review and discussion processes required. Key questions to answer should be: Should you do it? What is the benefit and do the benefits outweigh the costs? Can you do it? Is it technically feasible and are there enough resources?

27 So…………Let’s get started
That temptation at this point is to get started (after minimal planning). This is the traditional British approach. It gives the appearance of immediate activity and progress. We are busy ‘doing’. But it leads to mistakes and waste. We end up with Plan-Do, Do-Re-Do, Re- plan, Re-Do, RE-Do, Re-Plan etc

28 Project Life Cycle Consequently… So we... Projects over runs
Cost too much Don’t achieve desired result So we... Hunt for the guilty Persecute the innocent Promote the uninvolved

29 But I am too busy to spend time planning!…Planning allows you to:
Ensure that people only work on activities which are needed, and do them correctly the first time, not waste time doing unnecessary activities. Anticipate potential problems and take preventative action to deal with them before they happen. Do things in the right order at the right time, which should prevent things going wrong later.

30 What can go wrong !

31 The project manager’s adage (a light hearted motto)
You can have any two of three things in a project: You can get it done on time You can get it done within budgeted cost You can get it done properly/well  If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost.  If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time. Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do.

32 Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations?
A study by Hughes (1986) identified three main reasons for projects failing.  1 a lack of understanding of project management tools and an over reliance on project management software  2 communication problems  3 failure to adequately adjust to changes that occur during the course of the project

33 Why do so many projects fail to meet expectations?
Hughes notes that many managers are apt to lose sight of the project. By focusing on the project management software and managing this rather than the actual project! Michalski (2000) observes that “good communication is the key successful project management”.

34 Remember “If you fail to plan, you fail to do”.
“Proper Planning Prevents Poor performance”

35 So we will use a Project Life Cycle like this
Conception Phase (The Idea) Definition Phase (The Plan) Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN Implementation Phase (The Work) DO Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) REVIEW

36 The Definition phase – the plan
Review the reasons for the project. Describing detail what results are to be produced. Create a list of all the work to be performed. Produce a detailed project schedule. Calculate budgets. Describe how risk is to be managed. Identify any assumptions about the project. Identify and define the roles of the project’s team members.

37 The Initiation phase – start up
Assign people to project roles, ensure they are available when needed. Negotiation may be necessary. Give and explain all tasks to team members. Set up systems and accounts to track personnel information and financial expenditure. Announce the project’s start, what it will produce. When it will start when it will finish

38 Implementation phase – the do
Doing the tasks as laid out in your plan Regularly comparing the actual performance with the plan, knowing and anticipating when things are not going according to schedule Fixing problems that arise. Keeping everyone informed

39 The Evaluation phase – the wrap up or review
Get the customer’s approval of final results. There may be formal project hand over to the client Complete any paperwork. Hold a post project evaluation to recognise achievements and discuss lessons learned

40 Roles in projects – who is responsible for what?
One of the the benefits of project management techniques is the opportunity to clarify roles. Project sponsor – person who’s paying for it Project champion - person who wants to see it happen Project manager – will ensure it happens Project team – will make it happen Stakeholders – those affected by it and with an interest in it, but not necessarily part of it. Audience – we’ll consider them later!

41 Attributes of an effective project manager
Group exercise What you think are the attributes/qualities required to be an effective project manager?

42 Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are
Excellent time management skills ‘Can do’ proactive attitude Adaptable, flexible. Fair – respecting different people’s viewpoints Committed to the team and the project’s goals Decisive and realistic Excellent communication skills Leadership Assertiveness

43 Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are
Be prepared to ‘roll up their sleeves and get their hands dirty’ Foresight Planning skills Knowledge of the subject / area of work Be prepared to walk, if necessary i.e. leave! A sense of humour ?

44 The tools of & for project management
There are numerous tools which can be for managing projects, some of them complex, some of them simple. We will look at over a dozen tried and tested tools and techniques which can be used for effective project management.

45 Our tools for today QUAD Chart analysis
The QUAD chart is a very simple yet extremely effective tool. Project scoping – enables you to define what you do before you start. Stakeholder analysis – simple version helps you understand and manage the different relationships that matter to the project.

46 The QUAD chart A very simple yet powerful tool.
Used to help us clarify exactly what our project is all about.

47 Quad Chart

48 Project Management Simulation Exercise
We will carry out a simulated project

49 Project Management Simulation Exercise
“The Gourmet Breakfast” We are going to use a relatively simple example of something that you should be familiar with in order for you to be able to understand and practice on a real life project.

50 The Problem Just got up? Feeling kind of hungry?
Fancy a nice breakfast ? What choice do we have?

51 Decisions, Decisions

52 Let’s make a full cooked English breakfast

53 Class exercise - Your Mission
To produce a simple project plan for producing a full English Breakfast. We will be using this project to illustrate the use of the following: Quad Chart Analysis including Project Scoping Stakeholders and Stakeholder Analysis Desired Outcomes (Critical Success Factors) Secondary benefits

54 Why a breakfast? We will use the Breakfast as it’s a simple example of something where you should all have a similar level of basic knowledge. Let’s view making the breakfast as a project in its own right. It meets most of the criteria for/attributes of a project doesn’t it? Does it? Let’s check

55 Attributes of a project
A start and a finish Is a unique activity May involve uncertainty and risk Usually involves a team coming together specifically for the project A budget Non repetitive tasks Use of resources (including human resources) A single point of ultimate responsibility Clearly defined team roles

56 The Quad Chart


58 First a simple example for making a cup of tea.
Our first QUAD chart could look something like the one on the next slide

59 Example - Make A Cup of Tea
To make a cup of tea! 1. To make a cup of tea 1. The tea maker 2. The tea drinkers 2. To quench the thirst 3. To stimulate the mind

60 Example - Make A Cup of Tea
To make a cup of tea to quench the thirst and stimulate the mind 1. To make a cup of tea 1. The tea maker 2. The tea drinkers 2. To quench the thirst 3. To stimulate the mind 1. Audible noises of satisfaction from drinkers. Requests for a second cup 1. Made an acceptable cup of tea 2. Quenched the thirst 3. Stimulated the mind 2. Increased conversation Absence of snoring or yawning

61 But first another technique

62 Tool and Technique BRAINSTORMING

63 Brainstorming Brainstorming was coined in the 1940s by Alex Osborne a US advertising executive. It works by temporarily removing the social blocks which we all have which prevent us from being creative. Blocks such as: Feeling our ideas will be ridiculed Feeling we don’t know enough to voice an opinion Focusing on simple solutions rather than taking a risk

64 Brainstorming Brainstorming is essentially a method for being creative in groups, particularly useful for creative problem solving. ‘Popcorning’ is the new name for brainstorming

65 The rules of brainstorming
No judgement or criticism of an idea Quantity of ideas is more important than quality Freewheeling - rapid a spontaneous ideas Mutating and combining ideas – one person’s idea stimulates ideas from another person No answer or idea belongs to a person, they belong to the group Answers and ideas must be produced rapidly

66 Brainstorming how to do it
1 question or problem is posed 2 people in a group take turns to answer 3 each suggestion is written down by a note taker 4 repeat the process until the group run out of ideas 5 Select, filter and choose the most appropriate ideas.

67 Your Mission Class exercise
To produce a simple project plan QUAD and associated List of Assumptions for approval by Andrew for producing a full English Breakfast. We will do a brainstorm first and then in groups you will have a go at producing a QUAD chart.

68 Or You can try one of the following projects if you prefer.
Organise a stag do or hen party night out Plan a staff away day social event Plan a family holiday


70 Assumptions If we assume too much then we make an ass of you and me (ass u me) So….make a list of assumptions which go with your QUAD chart. Then we can be sure that we, as project manager, have the same base set of assumptions and understandings as everyone else involved in the project.

71 Mind your Language ! “The project is structured around a multifaceted incremental work plan combining novel content design based on new pedagogical paradigms blended with the e-learning environments to facilitate hybrid mode of delivery” Extract from GENIUS project based at Reading University – one of nominees for a Golden Bull award for gobbledygook from Plain English campaign 2005 Make sure you use appropriate language – Plain English is best Plain English web site also has free guide on alternative words to use

72 Stakeholder - definition
A stakeholder is, for our purposes at the moment, “a person or organisation who is affected by or impacted by what you are trying to do” This may of course be negatively as well as positively! It includes the members of the Project Team and the Customer(s)

73 Stakeholders 4 things to do with them
List them Try to understand their likely perspective - how might they react to the project? Assess their relative importance Act appropriately with the stakeholder throughout the project – identify and decide what action you may need to take

74 Stakeholders In the next session we will look at stakeholders in more detail – and compare stakeholders with audiences Taking account of them and their views is important to the success of your project.

75 Group exercise Produce a stakeholder analysis chart, using the simple version on the next slide, or the handout.

76 One version of the stakeholder analysis

77 Website has other versions

78 Where Have We Been?


80 What Does This Give Us? The beginnings of a project definition
A document to confirm that what we (as Project Manager) see the project as, is what the Line Manager/Customer was thinking of. Remember we have NOT started ‘doing’ the project yet. We are still planning it.

81 Next Session Stakeholders or Audience and categorising them further
Risk and how to categorise it Clarifying your project’s definition We will review the homework self study.

82 Your homework self-study
Produce your own QUAD chart, either for a project which you are going to do, or for a project which you have completed in the past, or for a project which you are currently working on. Produce a list of assumptions. Once you have done it leave it for 2 days and then review it; and amend it. Save a copy. Keep on re-refining it. Developing a good project definition using the QUAD chart is an iterative process which requires thinking time. Also have a go at doing a simple stakeholder analysis grid

83 Homework self-study Remember that you need to use the tools and techniques in order to learn them and should start practising them. Will be building upon homework in future weeks – it is important that you get started. Also remember that project management requires good time management skills and an ability to work under pressure.

84 What if you can’t think of a project?
Make up a realistic scenario. For example: Cleaning and servicing your car. Installing a bathroom suite Marketing a new product Digging up and concreting over the garden The choice is yours……

85 Website with forms

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