Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7 5/2/15. Features of a project A start and a finish Is a unique activity with a visible output May involve uncertainty and risk Involves a team."— Presentation transcript:
Features of a project A start and a finish Is a unique activity with a visible output May involve uncertainty and risk Involves a team coming together specifically for the project A budget Non repetitive tasks, sequential order Use of resources (including human resources) A single point of ultimate responsibility Clearly defined team roles Clear aims, objectives, goals
Terms often confused with ‘project’ Process – a series of steps needed to perform a routine activity (e.g. purchasing). A project may contain many processes. Programme – work performed towards achieving a long term goal (e.g. a health awareness programme). Programmes may never achieve all their goals, and may comprise a series of projects.
Examples of types of project and their size Individual – decorating your bedroom Group – organising a wedding Organisation – construction company, building the Millennium bridge in London Project Organisation – creation of a separate independent organisation specifically for accomplishing a particular project, e.g. the Olympic games committee Multinational – design construction of Concorde
Why Project Management? Project mismanagement can deter or render ineffective the best analysis and design methods Many projects suffer from poor leadership and management
Four common results („symptoms”) of mismanaged projects Unfulfilled or unidentified requirements Uncontrolled change of project scope Cost overruns Late delivery
Causes of Failed Projects Unreasonable estimates of costs before projects begin lack of proper preliminary/feasibility study poor estimating techniques estimates will change as the project progresses schedule delays analysts are overly optimistic
Causes of Failed Projects Mismanagement of expectations failure to identify key (or all potential) stakeholders failure to set project scope leads to creeping requirements syndrome budgets and schedules rarely modified Most contemporary companies modify (release) content
Causes of Failed Projects Misunderstanding the nature of software Flexible No real physical appearance – only behaviour you can not touch a software component `you may see the code and the result what it does (or not) Difficult to estimate => Mythical man-month assign more people to the project team Only leads to more confusion Complexity increases on the management side
From the project manager’s perspective….. You can have any two of three things in a project: You can get it done on time You can get it done within budgeted cost You can get it done properly/well If you are willing to wait, you can get the job done right, within cost. If you are willing to spend the money, you can get the job done on time. Or you can get the job done on time and within budget; only it might not do what it was supposed to do.
Attributes of an effective project manager What you think are the attributes/qualities required to be an effective project manager?
Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are Excellent time management skills ‘Can do’ proactive attitude Adaptable, flexible. Fair – respecting different people’s viewpoints Committed to the team and the project’s goals Decisive and realistic Excellent communication skills Leadership Assertiveness
Attributes of an effective project manager – typically are Be prepared to ‘roll up their sleeves and get their hands dirty’ Foresight Planning skills Knowledge of the subject / area of work Be prepared to walk, if necessary i.e. leave! A sense of humour ?
Project Management Process Initiation Planning (Devising the Plan) Execution Close-down
The tools of & for project management There are numerous tools which can be for managing projects, some of them complex, some of them simple. We will look at some tried and tested tools and techniques which can be used for effective project management.
Project Scoping Tool - QUAD Chart analysis The QUAD chart is a very simple yet extremely effective tool. Project scoping – enables you to define what you do before you start. Stakeholder analysis – simple version helps you understand and manage the different relationships that matter to the project.
The QUAD chart A very simple yet powerful tool. Used to help us clarify exactly what our project is all about.
Sample WHY IS PROJECT BEING DONE? WHAT FOR? WHAT IS THE RESULT? WHO IS PROJECT FOR? WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)? WHO WILL IT INVOLVE? GOALS! WHAT MAKES THE PROJECT A SUCCESS? WHEN ARE WE FINISHED? WHAT CAN BE MEASURED? HOW DO I MEASURE SUCCESS? TITLE OF PROJECT – SHORT DESCRIPTOR
Exercise “The Gourmet Breakfast” We are going to use a relatively simple example of something that you should be familiar with in order for you to be able to understand and practice on a real life project.
The Problem Just got up? Feeling kind of hungry? Fancy a nice breakfast ? What choice do we have?
Class exercise - Your Mission To produce a simple project plan for producing a full Irish Breakfast. Using this project to illustrate the use of the following: –Quad Chart Analysis including Project Scoping Stakeholders and Stakeholder Analysis Desired Outcomes (Critical Success Factors) Secondary benefits
Remember - Attributes of a project A start and a finish Is a unique activity May involve uncertainty and risk Usually involves a team coming together specifically for the project A budget Non repetitive tasks Use of resources (including human resources) A single point of ultimate responsibility Clearly defined team roles