Presentation on theme: "Implications of the NPT on a Coordinated Approach to Triple S Dr M. S. Draper C.B.E. Past head – Non-Proliferation Policy UK Department of Energy and Climate."— Presentation transcript:
Implications of the NPT on a Coordinated Approach to Triple S Dr M. S. Draper C.B.E. Past head – Non-Proliferation Policy UK Department of Energy and Climate Change
NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY Signed on 1 July 1968 simultaneously in Moscow, London and Washington
ATOMS FOR PEACE "To the making of these fateful decisions, the United States pledges before you - and therefore before the world - its determination to help solve the fearful atomic dilemma - to devote its entire heart and mind to find the way by which the miraculous inventiveness of man shall not be dedicated to his death, but consecrated to his life." President Eisenhower UN General Assembly 8 December 1953
NPT Structure Preamble & 11 Articles Article I bans Nuclear Weapons States from transferring weapons technology to others Article II - Non-Nuclear Weapons States are banned from acquiring nuclear weapons Article III – IAEA Safeguards required of non-nuclear weapons states Article IV – exploitation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes Article V - peaceful uses of nuclear explosions Article VI - commits all parties to nuclear disarmament Article VII - facilitates nuclear-weapons-free zones Article X - rights of withdrawal from the Treaty
ARTICLE IV 1. Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable right of all the Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with Articles I and II of this Treaty. 2. All the Parties to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also co-operate in contributing alone or together with other States or international organizations to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, especially in the territories of non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world. Inalienable rights are qualified by conformity with other Treaty Articles
TRIPLE S - DIFFERENCES SAFETYSECURITYSAFEGUARDS MaterialAll material which poses a hazard to human health Material which may be of interest to terrorists or criminals Those materials which have direct fissile application in nuclear explosives or which can be used to produce them. Who is regulatedFacility operator National Government and facility operator The regulatorNational Regulator IAEA (or Euratom)
THE NPT REVIEW CONFERENCE No desire for radical change to treatiy, rather step-wise developments without chaniging text Three main committees Disarmament and [global] security Disarmament and [global] security Safeguards Safeguards Peaceful Uses Peaceful Uses
Export Control Trigger List NPT Articles I, II & III relevance require control of transfers – i.e. export control Nuclear Suppliers' Group - Dual-Use List
NPT Extension and Review Conference 1995 18. All States should, through rigorous national measures and international cooperation, maintain the highest practicable levels of nuclear safety, including in waste management, and observe standards and guidelines in nuclear materials accounting, physical protection and transport of nuclear materials.
NPT Review Conference 2010 50. The Conference recognizes the safety and security issues associated with nuclear energy, as well as the important issue of managing spent fuel and radioactive waste in a sustainable manner, while also recognizing the continuing international efforts to address those issues........ 51. The Conference recognizes that the development of an appropriate infrastructure to support the safe, secure and efficient use of nuclear power, in line with relevant IAEA standards and guidelines, is an issue of central importance, especially for countries that are planning for the introduction of nuclear power.
NPT Review Conference 2010 58. The Conference stresses the importance of nuclear safety and nuclear security for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. While nuclear safety and nuclear security are national responsibilities, IAEA should play the key role in the development of safety standards, nuclear security guidance and relevant conventions based on best practice. 52. The Conference confirms that, when developing nuclear energy, including nuclear power, the use of nuclear energy should be accompanied by commitments to and ongoing implementation of safeguards, as well as appropriate and effective levels of safety and security, in accordance with IAEA standards and consistent with the national legislation and respective international obligations of States.
ARTICLE III.4 Nonnuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of this Article either individually or together with other States in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Negotiation of such agreements shall commence within 180 days from the original entry into force of this Treaty. For States depositing their instruments of ratification or accession after the 180-day period, negotiation of such agreements shall commence not later than the date of such deposit. Such agreements shall enter into force not later than eighteen months after the date of initiation of negotiations. Collective agreements are allowed Euratom Argentina – Brazil Atomic energy Cooperation (ABAC)
Conclusions NPT provides a tried & tested international foundation for peaceful use of nuclear energy Review Conference increasingly emphasising importance of safety, security and safeguards IAEA given lead role in in all three Possibility of using facility for joint agreements to take these issues forward on regional basis.