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Linking International Macro and Micro Data - The Basics Unit 1 Celia Russell ESDS International, MIMAS, The University of Manchester.

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Presentation on theme: "Linking International Macro and Micro Data - The Basics Unit 1 Celia Russell ESDS International, MIMAS, The University of Manchester."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linking International Macro and Micro Data - The Basics Unit 1 Celia Russell ESDS International, MIMAS, The University of Manchester

2 Objectives Understand the basic conceptual differences between aggregate and survey data Understand how international data is produced and disseminated, and the role of ESDS International Know more about the organisations that produce the international databanks Outline the content of the major international aggregate databases Access, subset and chart data from the World Development Indicators Outline the content of the major international survey datasets

3 Survey data Micro or survey data are data on individuals. This may be an individual person, or household or company. For example, in a census every household fills in a form with the name and age of everyone in the house. These individual responses are collected together into one giant survey dataset. Often survey data is anonymised before released. This means that some details are removed to protect the identity of the respondent


5 This row represents a person So does this one This variable gives the age of each person in the file Survey data in SPSS (data view)

6 These are names, descriptive labels and technical information for the variables we saw in data view. This box of value labels tells us what each value in the occat80 variable represents. Without some way of knowing what the numbers represent, the data is useless. SPSS (variable view)

7 Aggregate or macro data Macro or aggregated data are: Data about populations, groups, regions or countries. Example of aggregate indicators are life expectancy or employment rates. Data that have been averaged, totaled or otherwise derived from the individual level data found in the survey datasets. Most of the aggregate data we are going to talk about now is data about countries. Aggregate data are usually time series data, with repeated observations of the same indicator for the same country at regular intervals.


9 Other types of data Other types of database used in the social sciences include: longitudinal or panel qualitative mesodata

10 Example longitudinal data: The British Cohort Study Following the lives of the 17,000 babies born in the UK between 5th and 11th April 1970 In year zero used clinical records and talked to mother and midwife about the birth At ages 5, 10 and 16 talked to class teachers and parents and carried out medical tests At 26, 29 and 32 interviewed subjects about their work, relationships, health, family, politics and values The anonymised data can be used to follow individual life courses

11 Aggregate data sources Inter-governmental organisations (IGOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank are the primary actors in the collection and dissemination of international aggregate data The UK is unique in that through ESDS International, the UK academic community has free web-based access to the major databanks produced by the IMF, World Bank and other major international governmental organisations.

12 ESDS International Provides the UK academic community with free web- based access to a range of key international macro databanks produced by organisations such as the United Nations, OECD and World Bank Helps users to locate and acquire international micro level datasets Promotes the use of international datasets in research and teaching across a range of disciplines Is led by MIMAS at the Manchester University

13 International data providers The databanks originate from: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) United Nations (UN) World Bank Eurostat International Labour Organisation (ILO) UK Office for National Statistics International Energy Agency

14 International data themes Databanks cover: economic performance and development trade, industry and markets employment demography, migration and health governance human development social expenditure education science and technology land use and the environment energy

15 Aggregate data portfolio … International Monetary Fund Direction of Trade Statistics Balance of Payments Statistics Government Finance Statistics International Financial Statistics World Bank World Development Indicators World Bank Global Development Finance International Labour Organisation Key Indicators of the Labour Market United Nations Common Database United Nations Industrial Development Organization Industrial Statistics Databases Demand Supply Databases ESDS International provides free online access to the full versions of the latest releases of these databases to the UK academic community.

16 Aggregate data portfolio (cont) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Main Economic Indicators International Development International Direct Investment Statistics International Migration Statistics Main Economic Indicators Main Science and Technology Indicators Measuring Globalisation Quarterly Labour Force Statistics Services Statistics International Trade by Commodities Social Expenditure Database Eurostat New Cronos International Energy Agency Coal Information CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Electricity information Energy Prices and Taxes Energy Technology Research and Development Database Natural Gas Information Oil Information Renewables Information World Energy Statistics and Balances ESDS International provides free online access to the full versions of these databases to the UK academic community.


18 Accessing the Data Freely available to UK FE and HE Access via federated access management user authentication and ESDS online registration Special Conditions may also apply Delivered over the web via Beyond 20/20 Web Data Server (WDS) Download formats include *.xls, *.csv and *.ivt


20 World Bank Databases Collects data on all aspects of human development worldwide Annual data, designed for international comparability World Development Indicators Global Development Finance

21 World Development Indicators The World Development Indicators provides a broad picture of poverty trends and social welfare, the use of environmental resources, the performance of the public sector, and the integration of the global economy. Global database covers 190 countries Annual data starting 1960 Widely cited

22 Example from the World Development Indicators

23 Global Development Finance Global Development Finance is the World Bank s annual review of financial flows to developing countries. It also contains the Bank's projections for debt repayments etc for next ten years Only covers developing countries Annual data starting 1970 s

24 Example from the Global Development Finance

25 IMF databanks International Financial Statistics Government Finance Statistics Balance of Payments Statistics Direction of Trade The four major databanks produced by the IMF contain data on national accounts, trade, the balance of payments and government spending for around 190 countries. Collectively, they provide a global picture of economic development and international trade over the last 50 years.

26 IMF International Financial Statistics is published monthly since 1948 and updated monthly is the IMFs principal statistical publication and is the standard source for all aspects of international and domestic finance. covers over 200 countries reports time series data on exchange rates, balance of payments, international liquidity, money and banking, interest rates, prices, production, international transactions, government accounts, national accounts and population Has 3 sections: world tables, country tables and commodity prices

27 IMF Direction of Trade Contains data on the value of merchandise exports and imports between each country and all its trading partners Covers 186 countries and 12 regional groups Monthly, quarterly and annual data are presented most countries data extend from the 1980s to the present the IMF release pre-1980 Direction of Trade data as a separate database, (also available through ESDS International) The database is updated monthly

28 IMF Balance of Payments Statistics 175 countries worldwide Time series data covering the standard balance of payment components and international investment positions of countries worldwide Quarterly and annual time series data. When the data are available Where available, most countries data extend from 1970 s to the present

29 IMF Government Finance Statistics Covers data government income (such as tax and bonds) and expenditure by sector (defence, education, health, etc) for all levels of government (national, state, local) 149 countries worldwide Annual time series data. Annual entries generally begin in 1990 and run to the latest available year Pre 1990 data is released as a separate database Updated quarterly

30 IMF databanks

31 Hands on activities OK, lets try some hands-on! The prototype materials are located at:

32 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) databases Agriculture Banking Statistics (formerly Bank Profitability) Economic Outlook: Statistics and Projections Education Statistics (formerly Education at a Glance) Employment and Labour Market Statistics Globalisation ITCS International Trade by Commodity Indicators of Industry and Services Institutional Investors Insurance International Development International Direct Investment International Migration International Trade and Competitiveness

33 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) databases 2 Main Economic Indicators Monthly International Trade National Accounts OECD Health Data Revenue STAN Structural Analysis Science, Technology and R & D Services Social Expenditure Statistical Compendium Structural and Demographic Business Statistics (formerly Structural Statistics for Industry and Services) Taxing Wages Telecommunications and Internet.

34 OECD International Development Statistics Net US Development Assistance to the Middle East OECD, International Development Statistics, October 2006, ESDS International, (MIMAS) University of Manchester

35 International Energy Agency Databases cover around 130 countries The majority of the IEA datasets contain annual time series data from 1960 onwards Updated annually except for Energy Prices and Taxes which is updated quarterly Cover energy production, trade, stocks, transformation, consumption, prices and taxes

36 IEA databanks I CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Energy Prices and Taxes Energy Technology Research and Development Database World Energy Statistics and Balances –Energy Statistics of OECD Countries –Energy Balances of OECD Countries –Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries –Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries

37 IEA databanks II Electricity information Coal Information Natural Gas Information Oil Information Renewables Information

38 Example from IEA: CO 2 emissions from electricity generation in Latin America

39 UN and its agencies The UN Common database has been used for many years by the UN internally as a basis for the formulation of policy. Covers a huge range of human development topics including health, culture, family life, education and the environment The International Labour Organisation s Key Indicators of the Labour Market The UNIDO Industrial Statistics and Demand Supply databanks cover employment and trade world-wide, broken down by country and manufacturing sector.

40 Example from the ILO

41 International Microdata datasets: official sources Almost every country produces its own household surveys. The International Household Survey Network maintains a web-based Central Survey and Census Catalogue that holds the metadata created by these surveys.

42 Academic international surveys Many smaller organizations produce cross-national survey datasets. These typically are academically-driven surveys that compare opinions, life and individual experiences in several countries. Examples include the European Social Survey and the World Values survey. ESDS International provides access to these survey datasets alongside the macro-databanks through a series of reciprocal arrangements with the host institution or data archive.

43 European Social Survey The European Social Survey (the ESS) is examines the interaction between Europe's changing institutions and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of its diverse populations. Now in its third round, the survey covers over 20 nations.

44 World Values Survey The World Values Survey originally developed to answer the question, "What makes people happy?". It investigates socio-cultural, moral, religious and political values of different cultures around the world and looks for the relationships between people's values and beliefs and their overall levels of well-being.

45 The Global Barometers Eurobarometer is a series of surveys cross-national and cross- temporal comparative social research conducted on behalf of the European Commission and designed to monitor social and political attitudes. Afrobarometer measures social and political attitudes in Africa. In common with the other barometers, it examines issues of trust in institutions and society, evaluation of the country's political and economic performance, participation and spiritual beliefs. It has a particular focus on how people feel about their living conditions. Covers around 18 countries Latinobarómetro is an annual public opinion survey of approximately interviews in 18 countries in Latin America.

46 Other international surveys ESDS International also provides access to a number of other cross-national surveys including: E-Living : Life in a Digital Europe European Election Study European Quality of Life Survey (Eurofound) European Values Study International Social Survey Programme



49 Our top ten users, Sept 2006 InstitutionNumber of Accesses University of Manchester534 University of Oxford388 University of Essex367 London School of Economics and Politic..308 University of Birmingham274 University of Leicester255 School of Oriental and African Studies253 University of Nottingham239 University of Bath171 University of Warwick143

50 Courses and Training ESDS International provides courses and seminars on the service on request - please ask!

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