33e - Explain the influence of the Byzantine Empire and Vikings on Russia with particular attention to its impact on Tsar Ivan III and Kiev Slavs - people from the forests north of the Black Sea. Byzantium sent Missionaries to convert the Slavs. –Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril invented the Cyrillic alphabet (Slavic Alphabet).
Missionaries Reach the Slavs Byzantine trade w/ Slavs: –Slavs began absorbing many Greek Byzantine ways. –This blending of Slavic and Greek traditions eventually produced Russian culture.
Vikings Find the Slavs 800s: Vikings settled among the Slavs along river banks. –Also known as the Rus. The name “Russia” is taken from this group.
Vikings Find the Slavs 862: Slavs invited Viking Chief Rurik to be king of the Slavs. –Founded Novgorod, Russia’s first important city. –“Novgorod” translates into “New Town” in Russian.
Vikings Find the Slavs 880: Oleg moved south to the city of Kiev (KEE- ehf). From here, the Vikings could sail by river and sea to Constantinople where they could trade for products from distant lands.
Kiev became a Principality: –Ruled by a prince. Slavs and Vikings started to marry one another and the line between the two vanished.
Princess Olga Princess Olga: –957: Visited Constantinople and publicly converted to Christianity. –945-964: She ruled until her son was old enough. Her son resisted Christianity.
Vladimir 980: Princess Olga’s grandson, Vladimir, came to the throne. He sent out teams to observe the major religions of the times. –3 teams came back with lukewarm accounts of Islam, Judaism, & Western Christianity.
“The Greeks led us to the (buildings) where they worship their God, and we knew not whether we were in heaven or on earth. For on earth there is no such splendor or such beauty, and we are at a loss how to describe it. We only know that God dwells there among men, and... We cannot forget that beauty” ~ The Primary Chronicle ~
Baptism of Kiev 989: a baptism of all the citizens of Kiev was held in a local river. Kiev now was linked to Byzantium through trade and for religious guidance.
Kievan Russia Russia’s first important unified territory. Vladimir expanded Kiev territory into Poland and north almost to the Baltic Sea. Fought off nomads from the steppes to the South.
Kievan Russia 1019 Vladimir’s son, Yaroslav the Wise came to the throne & led Kiev to even greater glory. –Married off daughters in order to form trade alliances. – Created a legal code. – Built first library in Kiev. – Christianity prospered. –Kiev home to 400 churches.
Kiev’s Decline 1054: Yaroslav the Wise Died. –Buried in Saint Sophia Cathedral Yaroslav’s Crucial Error: –He split Kiev among his sons instead of handing it ALL to his eldest son. –The sons tore the state apart fighting for the best territories.
The Crusades 1095: The Crusades – the numerous clashes between Christians & Muslims for control of the Holy Lands of the Middle East. Added to Kiev’s troubles by disrupting trade. –Then a NEW threat emerged: THE MONGOLS!!!