Presentation on theme: "Higher RMPS Lesson 3 The Euthyphro dilemma. Learning intentions After todays lesson you will be able to: explain the background to the Euthyphro dilemma."— Presentation transcript:
Learning intentions After todays lesson you will be able to: explain the background to the Euthyphro dilemma explain the Euthyphro dilemma explain the terms absolute and relative reality.
The background Euthyphro was a man who brought his father to court for killing a slave. Euthyphro was adamant that this action was wrong and his father should be punished according. He believed his fathers action was impious or unholy. Socrates is a famous philosopher who is believed to have been responsible for the start of philosophy. Socrates wanted Euthyphro to define the terms pious and impious, for which he wanted his father charged. Euthyphro defined piety as what is pleasing to the gods.
But Socrates responded… with what has become known as the Euthyphro dilemma when he said… is something pious because it is pleasing to the gods or is it pleasing to the gods because it is pious? Socrates
In other words… Is something good because God says it is good or does God say it is good because it is good?
For example, Lets think about the golden rule: treat others as you would like to be treated Many religious people say that it is right to treat others as you would like to be treated because God says it is right.
But Socrates would argue … Is it right to treat others as you would like to be treated because God has said it is right? OR Does God say it is right to treat others as you would like to be treated because it is right?
Familiar??? Have we heard a similar argument somewhere before? Does the chicken or the egg come first?
If it is right because God says it is right, does this mean that God is just making up rules for everyone to obey? If so, is this really a reason to make something right? Are some things just wrong regardless of what God commands? (Like David killing a man in the supermarket?) Can you think of some examples? Things to consider…
Remember the divine command theory There are lots of people who have done things which are considered bad but have done them because they genuinely believed that God wanted them to do it and they believe their God is always right therefore their action was right. Can you think of any examples?
Divine command theory examples Hitler Osama Bin Laden Levites
If God says it is right because it is right, who decides what is right and wrong? Does this mean that there is someone higher than God who decides what is right?
This leads us to think about absolute morality If something is wrong or right no matter what, this is called an absolute. For example, some religious people believe that it is always wrong to kill (pacifists). But lots of religious people fight in wars and some believe in capital punishment, so what is going on here?
Some religious people believe that moral questions depend on the circumstances, in other words they are relative to the situation. For example, if David had killed the man in the supermarket and saved the 80 people in the cinema, many religious people think it would be right to kill a person on this occasion. And relative morality …
Learning check… 1.Explain in your own words the background to the Euthyphro dilemma.3KU 2.Describe the Euthyphro dilemma. 3KU 3.Explain how you would answer the Euthyphro dilemma.4AE 4.Explain the term absolute morality.2KU 5.Give three examples of things which you think are always wrong.3KU 6.Explain the term relative morality.2KU 7.Explain how you decide what is right and wrong.4AE
Quick recap The Euthyphro dilemma asks: Is something good because God says it is good or does God say it is good because it is good? The Euthyphro dilemma emerged after a conversation between a man called Euthyphro and Socrates about a definition of what is holy or pious. If something is wrong or right no matter what, it is called an absolute. If moral questions depend on the circumstances they are relative to the situation.