Presentation on theme: "1 The Euthyphro is an investigation into what? Piety/holiness. 2 Where is the Euthyphro set? Outside the king Archon’s (religious magistrate’s) court."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Euthyphro is an investigation into what? Piety/holiness. 2 Where is the Euthyphro set? Outside the king Archon’s (religious magistrate’s) court. 3 What is a dialectic? Discussion/argument back and forth towards a clearer understanding. 4 What is elenchus? Socrates’ method of cross examining/questioning 5 What are interlocutors in Socratic dialogues? Those taking part/talking. 6 What is Eironeia? Socrates’ apparent ignorance of the question being examined (he used this to encourage his interlocutors to open up) 7 At the end of the dialogue APORIA is reached – what is this? Acknowledged ignorance /knowing you don’t know.
8 Socrates is there for his preliminary hearing onto the impiety charges against him. Why is Euthyphro there? To charge his father for the accidental killing of a day worker (who himself is a murderer). 9 What surprises Socrates about Euthyphro’s case, and what does he ask of Euthyphro? That he is SO SURE of what is righteous (holy), he asks Euthyphro to teach him 10 What is Euthyphro’s first definition? He gives the example of him prosecuting his father 11 How does Euthyphro justify this as holy? – justified from mythology (Zeus’s punishing Chronus for swallowing his children) 12 Why does Socrates reject this? Because he wants to have a defining essence of piety, not an example / he doesn’t take the old myths literally but as poetry/art. 13 What is the next definition offered by Socrates? What the gods approve of is holy/pious. 14 Socrates objects that by this definition the same thing could be both pious and impious at the same time. How? Because the gods often disagree/argue over such qualities.
15 How does Euthyphro improve this definition? What ALL the gods approve of is holy/virtuous/pious. 16 Socrates asks a clarifying variation of this for investigating – what is it? Is something pious/virtuous/holy because the gods love it, or do the gods love it because it is pious/virtuous/holy. 17 Socrates uses the analogy of “being carried”, and “getting carried” to show this is a CIRCULAR argument. How does this go? For something to “be loved“ by the gods, it must have “got loved” by them – i.e. they recognised something lovable in it (it’s piety). SO it is pious because they love it - but they love it because it is pious. (circular) – also chicken and egg. (….. and we still don’t know WHY! ) 18 These 2 ways of looking at piety have a special name – what is it? Euthyphro’s dilemma. 19What is one of the often debated consequences of “pious because it is god-loved”? That what is holy is arbitrarily decided by the gods – who could approve of murder for example/ that virtue arises from god, and not from mankind/ that without religion we can’t be virtuous/ that virtue arises by god-fearing, not by human compassion.
20 Socrates, to clarify the issue, asks Euthyphro if he thinks holiness is part of justice, or justice part of holiness. What is Euthyphro’s answer? Holiness is part of justice - the part that involves taking care of the Gods (as opposed to man). 21 This (and the next attempt – “piety is serving the gods”) have similar weaknesses. What are they? Taking care/serving means providing what is lacking/helping – but the gods don’t lack anything/need help. 22 It is updated to – piety is about prayer and sacrifice – how is this rebutted? This means trading favours with the gods – but the gods don’t need favours. 23 Finally agrees that its not favours, but simply they are gratified by (or approve of) our attention – i.e. the pious is what gratifies the gods. What’s wrong with this? It returns us to his already collapsed definition – that the holy is what the god approve of (are gratified by). 24 What happens now? The investigation collapses in APORIA and Euthyphro rushes off to another appointment.