2 An ecosystem includes all living things (biotic) and nonliving things (abiotic)in an environment.Examples of biotic factors are flowers, trees,and animals.Examples of abiotic factors are streams androcks.Biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosysteminteract and supply the needs of living things.
3 Organisms in an ecosystem can be sorted into different populations. Populations are allmembers of a single species in an area at agiven time.Together, many different populations make up acommunity. A community includes all the livingthings in an ecosystem.
4 The path that energy and nutrients follow in an ecosystem is called a food chain.Energy flows in one direction in a food chain.
5 Energy in a food chain starts with the sun. Producers are organisms that use the sun’senergy to make sugar and oxygen. Producersare plants.A consumer is any animal that eats plantsor other animals.
6 Animals that eat producers directly are called herbivores (squirrels).Animals that eat other animals are calledcarnivores (bobcat).Animals that eat both plants and animals arecalled omnivores (woodpecker).
7 Decomposers break down dead or decaying plant and animalmaterial (fungi).Scavengers are consumersthat eat leftoverbodies after theyhave started to rot(vultures).
8 Q: What general pattern do all food chains follow?Q: What is the fewest number of links a foodchain could have? What is the greatestnumber?
9 A food web is a bunch of food chains that have links in common.A predator is an animal that hunts otheranimals for food.Prey are organisms that are eaten byother animals.
10 An energy pyramid is a diagram that shows the amount of energy available at each level of anecosystem.
11 Q: Can one organism be a consumer, omnivore, predator and prey? Explain your answer.Q: What occurs when a top carnivore is removedfrom a food web?