2 Lesson 1 – Energy Flow in Ecosystems Ecosystem – all living and nonliving things in an environment* Biotic – living things (i.e. plant, animals)* Abiotic – nonliving things (i.e. water, soil)
3 Lesson 1 Continued…Population – includes all the members of a single speciesFood chain – the path that energy and nutrients follow in an ecosystem* The energy in a food chain starts with the sun. It is the energy source for almost all organisms on earth.
4 Lesson 1 Continued…How are food chains alike?Energy flows in one direction in food chains.Producers are at the bottom of every food chain.
5 General pattern of a food chain! ProducerHerbivoreCarnivoreDecomposer
6 Consumers – any animal that eats plants or other animals Lesson 1 continued…Consumers – any animal that eats plants or other animals* herbivores – animals that eat plants (squirrels, some birds,some insects)* carnivores – animals that eat other animals (bobcats, hawks)* omnivores – animals that eat both plants andanimals (raccoons, woodpeckers, mice, and some crabs)* decomposers – break down dead or decaying plant and animalmaterial (fungi, bacteria, termites, and some worms)
7 Predator – an animal that hunts other animals for food Lesson 1 continued…Predator – an animal that hunts other animals for foodPrey – organisms that are eaten by other animals
8 What are food webs made of? Lesson 1 continued…What are food webs made of?Arrows pointing to anorganism show the living things that organism eatsArrows pointing away fromshow the animals that eatthat organism
9 How do energy pyramids compare? Lesson 1 continued….How do energy pyramids compare?When a producer is eaten, only 10% of the food energy it contains gets turned into herbivore/omnivore tissue. The rest (90%) is lost!It takes a H UGE number of organisms to support an ecosystem.The bottom level (producers) is the largest level because it contains the most organisms and also the most energy.
10 Food Chain Video(15 min) The Food Chain Mystery
11 Lesson 2: Relationships in Ecosystems Why do organisms compete?A limiting factor is any resource that restricts the growth of populations.A carrying capacity is the greatest number of individuals within a population that an ecosystem can support.If a jaguar population increases, food becomes harder for them to find.Soon, the jaguar population decreases, which means their food supply will rise back up.The cycle starts all over againWould you want tosurvive by drinkingthis water?(algae is limiting factor)
12 How do organisms avoid competition? Lesson 2 continued….How do organisms avoid competition?A habitat is the physical place where an organism lives and hunts for food.A niche is the special role an organism plays in a community-example: 2 birds live in the same location and eat the same food. But 1 bird is active at night while the other is active during the day. Therefore, the 2 birds can have different niches.Swampland habitatDesert habitatOcean habitat
13 How do organisms benefit from interaction? Lesson 2 continuedHow do organisms benefit from interaction?Symbiosis a relationship between two or more kinds of organisms that lasts over timeTypes of Symbiotic relationships:* Mutualism – benefits both organisms* Commensalism –one organism benefits withoutharming the other(examples: Remora fish and rays/sharks; the growth of orchids on trees in the rainforest; barnacles growing on the backs of whales.)Remora Fishriding on the bellyof a sharkBarnacles
14 Lesson 3: Adaptation and Survival What is adaptation?Adaptation – any characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environmentStructural Adaptations are adjustments to internal or external physical structures (examples: fur color, long limbs, strong jaws, the ability to run fast, strong sense of smell, sharp teeth).Behavioral adaptations are adjustments in an organism’s behavior.(3min. 54sec. Video clipabout how animals make Structuraland Behavioral adaptations)
15 What are some animal adaptations? Lesson 3 continued….What are some animal adaptations?Protective coloration – a type of camouflage where the color of the animal helps it blend in with its background.Mimicry – when an animal is protected against predators by its resemblance to an unpleasant animal.(Example: The king snake mimics the coloring of the poisonous coral snake)