Presentation on theme: "Health & Safety Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Health & Safety Management Health & Safety Management for Quarries Topic FourHealth & Safety Management
2Objectives of this Section To define the concepts and components of a health and safety management system.To outline recent developments in health and safety management including the development of OHSAS18001 and accreditation.
3H&S Management System: Definition “The means by which an organisation controls risk through the management process”.Health & Safety Executive
4“Part of the overall management system that facilities the management of the OH&S risks associated with the business of the organisation.This includes the organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing and achieving, reviewing and maintaining the organisation’s OH&S policy”.British Standards Institute
5Safety ProgrammesTraditional approach is the use of safety programmes.Programmes are focused on compliance with standards/regulationsProgrammes do not have strong or any feedback mechanismsThe performance of a programme is measured using (reactive) indicators such as the number of accidents, injuries etc.
6Systems ApproachFour elements common to general systems theories are input, process, output and feedback.Systems are also classed as being either open or closed.Open systems interacts with the external environment and is subject to external influences.Closed systems do not interact with the environment and so their ability to adapt or respond to changing internal conditions is limited.
8Key Elements of a H&S Management System (1) HSE Model(HSG65)
9Key Elements of a H&S Management System PolicyEffective health and safety policies set a clear direction for the organisation to follow.
10Key Elements of a H&S Management System OrganisingAn effective management structure and arrangements are in place for delivering the policy.
11Key Elements of a H&S Management System PlanningThere is a planned and systematic approach to implementing the health and safety policy through an effective health and safety management system.
12Key Elements of a H&S Management System Measuring Performance Performance is measured against agreed standards to reveal when and where improvement is needed.
13Key Elements of a H&S Management System Auditing and Reviewing ofPerformanceThe organisation learns from all relevant experience and applies the lessons.
14StandardisationA standard is defined by the BSI as:“A document, established by consensus and approved by a recognised body, that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context”
15Recent International Standards ISO 9000 Series: Quality Management SystemsISO Series: Environmental Management Systems
16Specifications and Guidance Standards consist ofSpecifications and GuidanceA specification is a “detailed set of requirements to be satisfied by a product, material, process or system, indicating the procedures for checking conformity to these requirements”.A guidance document provides advice rather than a set of verifiable requirements and is designed as an internal management tool.
17Recent Developments in H&S In 1997 the ISO decided not to develop an OHSMS standard.As a result many countries have developed their own. A recent survey identified 31 such standards.
18BS 8800 Produced by the BSI in 1996 Written as a guidance document. Based on the management systems models from both the HSE and ISO
19Over 7000 copies of BS8800 were sold in the first twelve months. Gives advice on:How to evaluate shortcomings with an existing health & safety management system (OHSMS).What an adequate system should comprise of.How to progress from existing system to an adequate system.Over 7000 copies of BS8800 were sold in the first twelve months.
23OHSAS 18001Produced in 1999.Specification produced by several organisations (both from the UK and internationally) led by the BSI.The management system model used in OHSAS is the ISO model.As a specification, OHSAS lists a number of management system requirements using ‘shall’ statements such as ‘the organisation shall establish and maintain documented health and safety objectives, at each relevant function and level within the organisation’.
24OHSAS 18002Produced in 2000.Provides generic guidance on the application ofThis document describes the intent, typical inputs, processes and typical outputs, against each requirement ofPurpose is to aid the understanding and implementation of OHSAS
26Practical Aspects of a H&S Management System The Health & Safety Policy (1)An OH&S policy establishes an overall sense of direction and sets the principles of action for an organisation.It sets goals for the level of OHS responsibility and performance required from the mine.It demonstrates the formal commitment towards good OH&S management, particularly that of the organisation’s top management.
27The Health & Safety Policy (2) BS8800 sets out nine specific commitments that must be included to develop a comprehensive policy statement.Recognising that OH&S is an integral particle of its business performance.Achieving a high level of OH&S performance, with compliance to legal requirements as a minimum, and to continual cost-effective improvement in performance.Provide adequate and appropriate resources to implement the policy.
28The Health and Safety Policy (2a) The setting and publishing of OH&S objectives, even if only by internal notification.Place the management of OH&S as a prime responsibility of line management, from the most senior executive to first line supervisory level.To ensure that the policy statement is understood, implemented and maintained at all levels in the organisation.
29The Health & Safety Policy (2b) Employee involvement and consultation to gain commitment to the policy and its implementation.Periodic review of the policy, the management system and audit of compliance to policy.Ensure that employees at all levels receive appropriate training and are competent to carry out their duties and responsibilities.
31Planning for Health & Safety Management Planning for OH&S involves:Identifying requirements for the system -what needs to be doneSetting clear performance criteria -what is to be doneIdentifying who is responsible -who gets it doneSetting time scales -when it should be done byIdentifying the desired outcome -what should be the result
32Both BS8800 and OHSAS identify three key areas which need to be addressed during the planning stage.(1) Risk Assessment and ManagementThe intent of this requirement is so that the organisation can appreciate all significant OH&S hazards facing it using the process of risk management.
33(2) Legal requirementsThe organisation should identify all legal requirements applicable to it as well as any other industry or company specific requirements to which it subscribes.
34(3) Health & Safety Objectives and Programmes Health and safety objectives are defined as “the goals in terms of H&S performance that an organisation sets itself to achieve and should be quantified wherever practicable”.
35Examples of Types of OH&S objective The introduction of additional features into the OH&S management system (e.g. permit to work systems for specific tasks, strategic OH&S safety training for supervisors etc.).The improvement of existing features, or the constancy of their application across the Quarry (e.g. accident reporting, communication of standard procedures etc.).The elimination or the reduction in frequency of particular undesired incidents (e.g. reduce accidents by 20%, remove all hazardous material etc.)
36Implementing Objectives Suitable indicators should be defined for each objective to allow for the monitoring of the implementation of the objectives.Formal action plans should be drawn up for each OH&S objective that has been identified. These should identify the:Individuals who are responsible for the deliverance of the objectives across the quarry and/or within each operation.Various tasks that need to be undertaken in order to meet each objective.
37Implementation & Operation Roles and ResponsibilitiesAt all levels within the organisation, people need to be aware of their roles and responsibilities.Individual OH&S responsibilities should be clearly defined.All personnel should be given the authority and resources necessary to carry out their responsibilities.
38Roles and Responsibilities cont’d Appropriate arrangements should exist whereby people are held accountable for discharging their responsibilities.Reporting relationships should be clear and unambiguous.Where personnel appraisal systems exist OH&S responsibilities should be included.
39Training & CompetenceThe organisation should have effective procedures for ensuring the competence of personnel to carry out their designated functions.Systematic identification of the competencies required by each employee.Provision of training identified as being necessary.Assessment of individuals to ensure that they have acquired and maintain the knowledge and skills necessary for the level of competence required.The maintenance of appropriate training/skills records.
40Implementation and Operation (2) Consultation & CommunicationThe organisation should encourage participation in a process of consultation and communication. This involves:Identifying and receiving relevant OH&S information from outside the organisation including:New, or amendments to legislation;Information necessary for the identification of hazards and evaluation and control of risks;
41Information and developments in OH&S management practice. Ensuring that pertinent OH&S information is communicated to all people in the organisation who need it. This requires arrangements to:Ensure that information does not just flow from the top down, but also from the bottom up.Avoiding restricting OH&S items to dedicated OH&S meetings.Report hazards and shortcomings in OH&S arrangements.Ensuring that relevant information is communicated to people outside the organisation who require it.Encouraging feed-back and suggestions from employees on OH&S matters.
42Implementation and Operation (2) DocumentationThe organisation should document, and maintain up-to-date sufficient documentation on its OH&S management system.This requirement is analogous to Regulation 7 of the Quarries Regulations, 1999 which require the production of a health and safety document.
43Operational ControlThe organisation should establish and maintain arrangements to ensure that activities are carried out safely.These arrangements should be based on the results of the risk assessment, and any health and safety objectives that have been defined.The organisation should also plan and prepare for all foreseeable accident, incident and emergency situations.
45Measuring Performance (1) The key purposes of measuring performance are to:Determine whether OH&S plans have been implemented and objectives achieved;Check that risk control measures are in place and are effective;Learn from system failures such as areas of non-compliance, accidents and incidents.Promote the implementation of plans and risk controls by providing feedback to all partiesProvide information that can be used to review, and if necessary to improve aspects of an OH&S management system.
46An organisation’s performance measurement system should incorporate both active and reactive monitoring data.
47Measuring Performance (2) Active measuring systemsUsed to check compliance with the organisations OH&S activities.Examples of active monitoring data are:The extent to which plans and objectives have been set and achieved.Whether a director for OH&S has been appointed.Whether a safety policy has been published.The numbers trained in OH&S.Number of risk assessments completed.Extent of compliance with risk controls.
48Active Measuring systems cont’d Extent of compliance with statutory requirements Frequency of OH&S audits.Frequency and effectiveness of OH&S committee meetings.OH&S specialist reports.Health Surveillance reports.Workplace exposure levels.Personal protective equipment use.
49Reactive monitoring Systems Should be used to investigate, analyse and record OH&S management system failures including:Unsafe ActsUnsafe conditionsLost time accidentsMajor accidents & fatalitiesSickness absencesCriticisms made by regulatory agency staffComplaints made by members of the public.
50Measuring Performance (3) Investigating Accidents and IncidentsOrganisations should have procedures for both the reporting and investigating of accidents and incidents.The prime purpose of these procedures should be to prevent further occurrence of the situation by identifying and dealing with the root causes.
52AuditingOH&S auditing is a process whereby an organisation can review and continuously evaluate the effectiveness of their OH&S management system.Safety auditing is a positive and proactive means of checking the safety performance of an organisation.
53Key Requirements of Auditing (1) SchedulingAn annual plan should be prepared for carrying out internal safety audits.Management SupportTo be of value, senior management should be fully committed to the concept of auditing and its effective implementation within the organisation.
54AuditsAudits provide a comprehensive and formal assessment of the organisation’s compliance with OH&S procedures and practices.The end result of an audit should include a detailed written assessment of OH&S procedures, the levels of compliance with procedures and practices and should where necessary identify corrective actions.AuditorsOne or more persons may undertake audits. A team approach may widen the involvement and improve co-operation. They should be independent of the part of the organisation or the activity that is to be audited.
55Key requirements of Auditing (2) Data collection and interpretationRelevant documentation should be examined. This may include.OH&S management system documentation.OH&S policy statement.OH&S emergency procedures.Permit to work systems and procedures.Minutes of OH&S meetings.Accident/Incident reports and records.Training records.Reports or communication with the enforcing authority.
56Audit resultsAt the end of the audit, and before submitting their report, the auditor or the Audit team should hold a meeting with the responsible manager of the audited area.The main purpose of such a meeting is to communicate the results of the audit to the responsible manager in order to ensure that it is understood and agreement is reached.
57Key requirements of Auditing (2) Content of the ReportThe content of the final audit report should, depending on the case, contain the following elements:The audit objectives and scopeThe particulars of the audit plan, identification of the members of the auditing team and the audited representative, dates of audit and identification of the area subject to audit;
58Content of the Report cont’d The identification of reference handbooks used to conduct the audit;The cases of non conformance.The auditors assessment of the degree of conformity to OHSAS 18001The ability of the OH&S management system to achieve the stated OH&S objectives