Presentation on theme: "Health & Safety Management Health & Safety Management for Quarries Topic Four."— Presentation transcript:
Health & Safety Management Health & Safety Management for Quarries Topic Four
Objectives of this Section To define the concepts and components of a health and safety management system. To outline recent developments in health and safety management including the development of OHSAS18001 and accreditation.
H&S Management System: Definition The means by which an organisation controls risk through the management process. Health & Safety Executive
Part of the overall management system that facilities the management of the OH&S risks associated with the business of the organisation. This includes the organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing and achieving, reviewing and maintaining the organisations OH&S policy. British Standards Institute
Safety Programmes Traditional approach is the use of safety programmes. Programmes are focused on compliance with standards/regulations Programmes do not have strong or any feedback mechanisms The performance of a programme is measured using (reactive) indicators such as the number of accidents, injuries etc.
Systems Approach Four elements common to general systems theories are input, process, output and feedback. Systems are also classed as being either open or closed. –Open systems interacts with the external environment and is subject to external influences. –Closed systems do not interact with the environment and so their ability to adapt or respond to changing internal conditions is limited.
Key Elements of a H&S Management System (1) HSE Model (HSG65)
Key Elements of a H&S Management System Policy Effective health and safety policies set a clear direction for the organisation to follow.
Organising An effective management structure and arrangements are in place for delivering the policy. Key Elements of a H&S Management System
Planning There is a planned and systematic approach to implementing the health and safety policy through an effective health and safety management system. Key Elements of a H&S Management System
Measuring Performance Performance is measured against agreed standards to reveal when and where improvement is needed. Key Elements of a H&S Management System
Auditing and Reviewing of Performance The organisation learns from all relevant experience and applies the lessons. Key Elements of a H&S Management System
Standardisation A standard is defined by the BSI as: A document, established by consensus and approved by a recognised body, that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context
Recent International Standards ISO 9000 Series: Quality Management Systems ISO 14000 Series: Environmental Management Systems
Standards consist of Specifications and Guidance A specification is a detailed set of requirements to be satisfied by a product, material, process or system, indicating the procedures for checking conformity to these requirements. A guidance document provides advice rather than a set of verifiable requirements and is designed as an internal management tool.
Recent Developments in H&S In 1997 the ISO decided not to develop an OHSMS standard. As a result many countries have developed their own. A recent survey identified 31 such standards.
BS 8800 Produced by the BSI in 1996 Written as a guidance document. Based on the management systems models from both the HSE and ISO 14001.
BS 8800 Gives advice on: How to evaluate shortcomings with an existing health & safety management system (OHSMS). What an adequate system should comprise of. How to progress from existing system to an adequate system. Over 7000 copies of BS8800 were sold in the first twelve months.
BS 8800: Management System Models (1) ISO 14001
BS 8800: Management System Models (2) HSE (HSG65)
Produced in 1999. Specification produced by several organisations (both from the UK and internationally) led by the BSI. The management system model used in OHSAS 18001 is the ISO 14001 model. As a specification, OHSAS 18001 lists a number of management system requirements using shall statements such as the organisation shall establish and maintain documented health and safety objectives, at each relevant function and level within the organisation.
OHSAS 18002 Produced in 2000. Provides generic guidance on the application of 18001. This document describes the intent, typical inputs, processes and typical outputs, against each requirement of 18001. Purpose is to aid the understanding and implementation of OHSAS 18001.
Practical Aspects of a H&S Management System The Health & Safety Policy (1) An OH&S policy establishes an overall sense of direction and sets the principles of action for an organisation. It sets goals for the level of OHS responsibility and performance required from the mine. It demonstrates the formal commitment towards good OH&S management, particularly that of the organisations top management.
The Health & Safety Policy (2) BS8800 sets out nine specific commitments that must be included to develop a comprehensive policy statement. Recognising that OH&S is an integral particle of its business performance. Achieving a high level of OH&S performance, with compliance to legal requirements as a minimum, and to continual cost-effective improvement in performance. Provide adequate and appropriate resources to implement the policy.
The Health and Safety Policy (2a) The setting and publishing of OH&S objectives, even if only by internal notification. Place the management of OH&S as a prime responsibility of line management, from the most senior executive to first line supervisory level. To ensure that the policy statement is understood, implemented and maintained at all levels in the organisation.
The Health & Safety Policy (2b) Employee involvement and consultation to gain commitment to the policy and its implementation. Periodic review of the policy, the management system and audit of compliance to policy. Ensure that employees at all levels receive appropriate training and are competent to carry out their duties and responsibilities.
Planning for Health & Safety Management Planning for OH&S involves: Identifying requirements for the system - what needs to be done Setting clear performance criteria- what is to be done Identifying who is responsible - who gets it done Setting time scales - when it should be done by Identifying the desired outcome - what should be the result
Both BS8800 and OHSAS 18001 identify three key areas which need to be addressed during the planning stage. (1) Risk Assessment and Management The intent of this requirement is so that the organisation can appreciate all significant OH&S hazards facing it using the process of risk management.
(2) Legal requirements The organisation should identify all legal requirements applicable to it as well as any other industry or company specific requirements to which it subscribes.
(3) Health & Safety Objectives and Programmes Health and safety objectives are defined as the goals in terms of H&S performance that an organisation sets itself to achieve and should be quantified wherever practicable.
Examples of Types of OH&S objective The introduction of additional features into the OH&S management system (e.g. permit to work systems for specific tasks, strategic OH&S safety training for supervisors etc.). The improvement of existing features, or the constancy of their application across the Quarry (e.g. accident reporting, communication of standard procedures etc.). The elimination or the reduction in frequency of particular undesired incidents (e.g. reduce accidents by 20%, remove all hazardous material etc.)
Suitable indicators should be defined for each objective to allow for the monitoring of the implementation of the objectives. Formal action plans should be drawn up for each OH&S objective that has been identified. These should identify the: –Individuals who are responsible for the deliverance of the objectives across the quarry and/or within each operation. –Various tasks that need to be undertaken in order to meet each objective. Implementing Objectives
Implementation & Operation Roles and Responsibilities At all levels within the organisation, people need to be aware of their roles and responsibilities. Individual OH&S responsibilities should be clearly defined. All personnel should be given the authority and resources necessary to carry out their responsibilities.
Roles and Responsibilities contd Appropriate arrangements should exist whereby people are held accountable for discharging their responsibilities. Reporting relationships should be clear and unambiguous. Where personnel appraisal systems exist OH&S responsibilities should be included.
Training & Competence The organisation should have effective procedures for ensuring the competence of personnel to carry out their designated functions. Systematic identification of the competencies required by each employee. Provision of training identified as being necessary. Assessment of individuals to ensure that they have acquired and maintain the knowledge and skills necessary for the level of competence required. The maintenance of appropriate training/skills records.
Implementation and Operation (2) Consultation & Communication The organisation should encourage participation in a process of consultation and communication. This involves: Identifying and receiving relevant OH&S information from outside the organisation including: New, or amendments to legislation; Information necessary for the identification of hazards and evaluation and control of risks;
Information and developments in OH&S management practice. Ensuring that pertinent OH&S information is communicated to all people in the organisation who need it. This requires arrangements to: Ensure that information does not just flow from the top down, but also from the bottom up. Avoiding restricting OH&S items to dedicated OH&S meetings. Report hazards and shortcomings in OH&S arrangements. Ensuring that relevant information is communicated to people outside the organisation who require it. Encouraging feed-back and suggestions from employees on OH&S matters.
Implementation and Operation (2) Documentation The organisation should document, and maintain up- to-date sufficient documentation on its OH&S management system. This requirement is analogous to Regulation 7 of the Quarries Regulations, 1999 which require the production of a health and safety document.
Operational Control The organisation should establish and maintain arrangements to ensure that activities are carried out safely. These arrangements should be based on the results of the risk assessment, and any health and safety objectives that have been defined. The organisation should also plan and prepare for all foreseeable accident, incident and emergency situations.
Measuring Performance (1) The key purposes of measuring performance are to: Determine whether OH&S plans have been implemented and objectives achieved; Check that risk control measures are in place and are effective; Learn from system failures such as areas of non- compliance, accidents and incidents. Promote the implementation of plans and risk controls by providing feedback to all parties Provide information that can be used to review, and if necessary to improve aspects of an OH&S management system.
An organisations performance measurement system should incorporate both active and reactive monitoring data.
Measuring Performance (2) Active measuring systems Used to check compliance with the organisations OH&S activities. Examples of active monitoring data are: The extent to which plans and objectives have been set and achieved. Whether a director for OH&S has been appointed. Whether a safety policy has been published. The numbers trained in OH&S. Number of risk assessments completed. Extent of compliance with risk controls.
Active Measuring systems contd Extent of compliance with statutory requirements Frequency of OH&S audits. Frequency and effectiveness of OH&S committee meetings. OH&S specialist reports. Health Surveillance reports. Workplace exposure levels. Personal protective equipment use.
Reactive monitoring Systems Should be used to investigate, analyse and record OH&S management system failures including: Unsafe Acts Unsafe conditions Lost time accidents Major accidents & fatalities Sickness absences Criticisms made by regulatory agency staff Complaints made by members of the public.
Measuring Performance (3) Investigating Accidents and Incidents Organisations should have procedures for both the reporting and investigating of accidents and incidents. The prime purpose of these procedures should be to prevent further occurrence of the situation by identifying and dealing with the root causes.
Auditing OH&S auditing is a process whereby an organisation can review and continuously evaluate the effectiveness of their OH&S management system. Safety auditing is a positive and proactive means of checking the safety performance of an organisation.
Key Requirements of Auditing (1) Scheduling An annual plan should be prepared for carrying out internal safety audits. Management Support To be of value, senior management should be fully committed to the concept of auditing and its effective implementation within the organisation.
Audits Audits provide a comprehensive and formal assessment of the organisations compliance with OH&S procedures and practices. The end result of an audit should include a detailed written assessment of OH&S procedures, the levels of compliance with procedures and practices and should where necessary identify corrective actions. Auditors One or more persons may undertake audits. A team approach may widen the involvement and improve co-operation. They should be independent of the part of the organisation or the activity that is to be audited.
Key requirements of Auditing (2) Data collection and interpretation Relevant documentation should be examined. This may include. OH&S management system documentation. OH&S policy statement. OH&S emergency procedures. Permit to work systems and procedures. Minutes of OH&S meetings. Accident/Incident reports and records. Training records. Reports or communication with the enforcing authority.
Audit results At the end of the audit, and before submitting their report, the auditor or the Audit team should hold a meeting with the responsible manager of the audited area. The main purpose of such a meeting is to communicate the results of the audit to the responsible manager in order to ensure that it is understood and agreement is reached.
Key requirements of Auditing (2) Content of the Report The content of the final audit report should, depending on the case, contain the following elements: The audit objectives and scope The particulars of the audit plan, identification of the members of the auditing team and the audited representative, dates of audit and identification of the area subject to audit;
Content of the Report contd The identification of reference handbooks used to conduct the audit; The cases of non conformance. The auditors assessment of the degree of conformity to OHSAS 18001 The ability of the OH&S management system to achieve the stated OH&S objectives