2 Language: Turning Thoughts into Words Properties of LanguageSymbolicSemanticGenerativeStructured
3 The Hierarchical Structure of Language Phonemes = smallest speech units100 possible, English – about 40Morphemes = smallest unit of meaning50,000 in English, root words, prefixes, suffixesSemantics = meaning of words and word combinationsObjects and actions to which words referSyntax = a system of rules for arranging words into sentencesDifferent rules for different languages
4 Language Development: Milestones Initial vocalizations similar across languagesCrying, cooing, babbling6 months – babbling sounds begin to resemble surrounding language1 year – first wordsimilar cross-culturally – words for parentsreceptive vs. expressive language
6 Language Development: Milestones Continued 18-24 months – vocabulary spurtfast mappingover and underextensionsEnd of second year – combine wordsTelegraphic speechMean Length of Utterance (MLU)End of third year – complex ideas, plural, past tenseOverregularization
7 Bilingualism: Learning More Than One Language Research findings:Smaller vocabularies in one language, combined vocabularies averageHigher scores for middle-class bilingual subjects on cognitive flexibility, analytical reasoning, selective attention, and metalinguistic awarenessSlight disadvantage in terms of language processing speedSecond languages more easily acquired early in lifeGreater acculturation facilitates acquisition
8 Fig 8. 4 – Age and second language learning Fig 8.4 – Age and second language learning. In the study of how well immigrants to the United States master English as a second language, Johnson and Newport (1989) examined the relationship between the subjects’ age of arrival and their mastery of syntax. As you can see, it was advantageous to start learning English at an earlier age, up through about age 15. After that, age of arrival did not make a difference. For example, those who started at 20 were no better off than those who started at 30.(Adapted from Johnson & Newport, 1989)
9 Can Animals Develop Language? Dolphins, sea lions, parrots, chimpanzeesVocal apparatus issueAmerican Sign LanguageAllen and Beatrice Gardner (1969)Chimpanzee - Washoe160 word vocabularySue Savage-RumbaughBonobo chimpanzee - KanziSymbolsReceptive language – 72% of 660 requests
10 Theories of Language Acquisition BehavioristSkinnerlearning of specific verbal responsesNativistChomskylearning the rules of languageLanguage Acquisition Device (LAD)InteractionistCognitive, social communication, and emergentist theories
11 Fig 8. 5 – Interactionist theories of language acquisition Fig 8.5 – Interactionist theories of language acquisition. The interactionist view is that nature and nurture are both important to language acquisition. Maturation is thought to drive language development directly and to influence it indirectly by fostering cognitive development. Meanwhile, verbal exchanges between parents and others are also thought to play a critical role in molding language skills. The complex interrelations depicted here shed some lighton why there is room for extensive debate about the crucial factors inlanguage acquisition.
12 Problem Solving: Types of Problems Greeno (1978) – three basic classesProblems of inducing structureSeries completion and analogy problemsProblems of arrangementString problem and AnagramsOften solved through insightProblems of transformationHobbits and orcs problemWater jar problem
13 Fig 8. 6 – Six standard problems used in studies of problem solving Fig 8.6 – Six standard problems used in studies of problem solving. Try solving the problems and identifying which class each belongs to before reading further. The problems can be classified as follows. The analogy problems and series completion problems are problems of inducing structure. The solutions for the analogy problems are Buy and Patient. The solutions for the series completion problems are 4 and E. The string problem and the anagram problems are problems of arrangement. To solve the string problem, attach the screwdriver to one string and set it swinging as a pendulum. Hold the other string and catch the swinging screwdriver. Then you need only untie the screwdriver and tie the strings together. The solutions for the anagram problems are WATER and JOKER. The hobbits and orcs problem and the water jar problem are problems of transformation. The solutions for these problems are outlined in Figures 8.7 and 8.8.
14 Effective Problem Solving Well defined vs. ill defined problemsBarriers to effective problem solving:Irrelevant InformationFunctional FixednessMental SetUnnecessary Constraints
15 Fig 8. 12 – The tower of Hanoi problem Fig 8.12 – The tower of Hanoi problem. Your mission is to move the rings from peg A to peg C. You can move only the top ring on a peg and can’t place a larger ring above a smaller one. The solution is explained in the text.
16 Approaches to Problem Solving AlgorithmsSystematic trial-and-errorGuaranteed solutionHeuristicsShortcutsNo guaranteed solutionForming subgoalsWorking backwardSearching for analogiesChanging the representation of a problem
17 Fig 8. 16 – Representing the bird and train problem Fig 8.16 – Representing the bird and train problem. The typical inclination is to envision this problem spatially, as shown here. However, this representation makes the problem much more difficult than it really is.
18 Culture, Cognitive Style, and Problem Solving Field dependence – relying on external frames of referenceField independence – relying on internal frames of referenceWestern cultures inspire field independenceCultural influence based in ecological demandsHolistic vs. analytic cognitive styles
19 Decision Making: Evaluating Alternatives and Making Choices Simon (1957) – theory of bounded rationalityMaking ChoicesAdditive strategiesElimination by aspectsRisky decision makingExpected valueSubjective utilitySubjective probability
21 Heuristics in Judging Probabilities The availability heuristicThe representativeness heuristicThe tendency to ignore base ratesThe conjunction fallacyThe alternative outcomes effect
22 Fig 8. 19 – The conjunction fallacy Fig 8.19 – The conjunction fallacy. People routinely fall victim to the conjunction fallacy, but as this diagram makes obvious, the probability of being in a subcategory (college teachers who are politicians) cannot be higher than the probability of being in the broader category (college teachers). As this case illustrates, it often helps to represent a problem in a diagram.
23 Understanding Pitfalls in Reasoning About Decisions The gambler’s fallacyThe law of small numbersOverestimating the improbableConfirmation bias and belief perseveranceThe overconfidence effectFraming
24 Evolutionary Analyses: Flaws in Decision Making and Fast and Frugal Heuristics Cosmides and Tooby (1996)Unrealistic standard of rationalityDecision making evolved to handle real-world adaptive problemsProblem solving research based on contrived, artificial problemsGigerenzer (2000)Quick and dirty heuristicsLess than perfect but adaptive