Presentation on theme: "Thinking and Language I Think; therefore I am. I Talk; therefore I am ignored."— Presentation transcript:
Thinking and Language I Think; therefore I am. I Talk; therefore I am ignored.
Thinking and Language Thinking involves processing information using mental representations such as creating and organizing mental images and critically analyzing their meaning. There are various kinds of critical thinking, wherein we consciously direct our mental processes toward goals such as reasoning, solving problems and making judgments
Thinking and Language The Brain
Types of Thinking Analysis: Breaking large complex concepts into smaller and simpler forms; break down wholes to parts Synthesis: Combining and integrating two or more processes or concepts into a more complex form; put parts together into wholes Divergent Thinking: Generating a number of diverse ideas or alternative solutions to a problem Convergent Thinking: Taking many ideas and converging them into a single idea or answer to a problem
Thinking Often the goal is problem-solving, in which mental processes are used to overcome obstacles to arrive at a solution. This usually involves reasoning, drawing conclusions from evidence and judgment and decision-making wherein we evaluate various possibilities and choose the most suitable option.
Problem Solving When we face a mental challenge in which there is a goal to overcome obstacles, we are engaging in problem-solving. Generally we use a common method of problem-solving. We 1) identify the problem, 2) define the problem, 3) explore possible plans or strategies 4) choose a strategy 5) utilize resources to act on the chosen plan 6) monitor the problem-solving process and 7) evaluate the solution.
Two types of thinking
Problem Solving If it is a well-structured problem, there is usually a clear path to find a solution. With ill-structured problems, often called "insight problems", no easy solution arises and we generally have to think a lot about the problem until we have a sudden insight and the solution becomes clear to us.
In well-structured problem-solving, we generally use one of two kinds of strategies: Heuristics – informal, speculative, intuitive mental shortcuts such as trial and error or using strategies that worked on similar problems; one selectively tests solutions most likely to be correct – can be helpful and are quicker, but do not guarantee they will lead to a solution
Problem Solving Algorithms – formal, step by step strategies to lead to a solution, such as repeating a series of steps to balance a checkbook or solve a math problem; however many problems do not have algorithms that generate solutions
Problem Solving Ill-structured problems require insight to see the problem in a new way. You cannot solve them with clever algorithms but must develop a whole new strategy. Some take the "nothing special view" of insight, believing it is merely an extension of ordinary perceiving, recognizing, learning and conceiving. The "three-process view" contends that insight occurs when people selectively encode relevant information, compare relationships between old and new information and selectively combine old and new relevant information to solve problems.
Problem Solving Productive thinking, typical of creative people, involves novel combinations of ideas and insights. Reproductive thinking uses existing ideas and associations between those ideas. Creative people generate new ideas and insights that do not rely on simply making use of what already exists. Often insights come when we free ourselves of assumptions that impede our solving the problems.
Problem Solving Some of these problematic assumptions are: Mental Sets: old ways of thinking, existing models, that become frames of mind that blind us to a new strategy.
Problem Solving Functional Fixedness: inability to see how something could be used in a novel or alternative way to solve a problem
Confirmation Bias: the tendency to selectively seek and choose information that support our bias and to ignore other knowledge.
Problem Solving: Confirmation Bias
Problem Solving Irrelevant Information: tendency to include too much information that does not relate to the problem.
Problem Solving Negative Transfer: the carryover from prior experience with seemingly similar problems that impedes thinking in new ways
Problem Solving Cognitive psychologists have also developed understanding of two positive influences on problem solving including: Positive Transfer: the facilitation of problem- solving by having solved similar problems Incubation: the facilitation of problem-solving through putting aside the problem after intense scrutiny so that new insights can emerge Expertise and knowledge in an area also add to problem-solving capabilities as experts know more and can organize the information more efficiently.
Expertise and Knowledge
Judgment and Decision-Making Judgment and Decision-Making are cognitive processes we use to evaluate numerous alternatives so we may select the best option. Our decisions are often based on problematic thinking strategies that include personal biases and mental shortcuts that impede our making ideal decisions in our lives.
Judgment and Decision-Making
Strategies that hinder good judgment Bounded Rationality: Humans by nature are not always rational, but bounded by limited rationality due to our often irrational and emotional nature. Satisfying: Often we choose the first acceptable, satisfactory, alternative rather than consider all the possibilities.
Strategies that hinder good judgment Elimination by Aspects: When faced with a great number of alternatives, we often focus on one or two aspects rather than all options available. Heuristics, mental shortcuts, and Personal Biases of Judgment also limit and distort our ability to make good rational decisions. We tend to use mental shortcuts and personal biases that distort and limit our abilities to make sound judgments.
Elimination by Aspects
Thinking problems include: The Availability Heuristic: cognitive shortcut that relies on what comes to mind easily, a quick answer that may not include alternatives Representativeness: assumption that judgments made based on a typical member of a category will be true for all members of the category Overconfidence: being overly trustful of our own skills, knowledge or judgment
The Formal Process of Reasoning Reasoning is a formal process wherein we draw conclusions based on evidence. Two distinct types are: Inductive Reasoning – proceeds from specific facts or observations and leads to a probable general conclusion that explains the facts Deductive Reasoning – proceeds from general statements to a probable specific conclusion
The Formal Process of Reasoning
Language Infants spontaneously create speech sounds and begin cooing, making phoneme sounds heard in all languages. They begin babbling, using repetitive, rhythmic speech including their own language phonemes around 4 months of age. They begin holophrastic speech, one word communication and move around 18 months to telegraphic speech, short sentences resembling a short telegram, using content words to convey meaning with few function words.
Semantics is the study of meanings of words in a language. Linguistic meanings take two forms: Denotation – the strict dictionary definition of a word and Connotation – the emotional overtone or nonexplicit meaning understood by how a word is used Syntax is the study of language structure, how words are put together in a particular order to create meaningful sentences. Grammar is the study of the regular patterns of language use.
Connotation: What is Cool?
Language Pragmatics is the study of how people use language. Sociolinguistics studies how people use language in social interaction. The linguistic-relativity hypothesis proposes that different languages cause people to think and perceive the world differently. Cross-cultural studies of languages have also found linguistic universals, characteristic patterns found in all languages. Others study bilinguals, people who can speak two languages, to see if bilinguals think differently from people who speak one language. Cognitive psychology is focusing a lot of research on the relationships between thought and language and how we use language in social interaction.
Sources Santa Fe Community College: r.htm r.htm From the Mind of Sweetwood