Presentation on theme: "Area of psychology that refers broadly to mental processes or thinking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Area of psychology that refers broadly to mental processes or thinking COGNITIONArea of psychology that refers broadly to mental processes or thinking
2 Problem SolvingRefers to the active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainableMust go beyond given information to overcome obstacles to reach goal/solution
3 Types of Problems Problems of Inducing Structure Must discover relations among parts of problemAnalogyMerchant:Sell::Customer: ___Series Completion+-XX++-X++--X++-??X
4 Problems of Arrangement Arrange parts in a way that satisfies some criterionOften solved w/burst of insightAnagrams:elsnsmea = salesmenString Problem p.
5 Problems of Transformation Must carry out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a goalHobbits & OrcsWater Jar Problem
6 Barriers to Problem Solving Irrelevant Information: trying to use all info. to solve a problem/numericalFunctional Fixedness: a tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with the process of problem solvingMental Set: the tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways---especially ones that worked in the past
7 Try to figure this out… What is the pattern of the following numbers:
8 More barriers…Unnecessary Constraints: perceiving barriers that don’t existPeople usually make assumptions that impose unnecessary constraints on problem-solvingNine-dot problem
9 Producing Strategies & Evaluating Progress Trial & Error: works best with limited choicesAlgorithm: step-by-step problem-solving method that guarantees a solutionHeuristics: short cuts to problem solving; called “rule of thumb” used to simplify problemForming subgoalsAnalogyChanging representation of problem-good to use when your initial attempts were unsuccessful
10 Unscramble the following letters… G S P L O Y O C H YAlgorithmAll 90, 208 combinationsHeuristicThrow out all YY combinations
11 Decision MakingInvolves evaluating alternatives and making choices among themSimon’s theory of bounded rationality: asserts people frequently make irrational decisions that are less than optimalWe tend to use simple strategies that only give us a few options where more are available
12 Making Choices Additive Strategy: list/weigh options (p. 231) Elimination by Aspects: alternatives are eliminated by evaluating attributesWe tend to use additive more often, however, as more options/factors are added we switch to elimination by aspects.
13 Decision Making Heuristics Availability: easily retrieved information from LTM sways decisionKLNRV: Do these letters appear more often in the 1st or 3rd letter position?Is flying more dangerous than driving?People tend to overestimate the likelihood of improbable eventsRepresentativeness: resemblance to a stereotypic model used to judge a new situationSteven is articulate, outgoing, artistic, and politically liberal. Is it more likely that he:A) is an engineering major, orB) started out as an engineering major and switched to journalism?Illustrates conjunction fallacy
14 Confirmation Bias: seeking evidence in support of our beliefs; ignoring evidence that is not Overconfidence Effect: people put too much faith in their estimates, beliefs, and decisionsWe tend to be more confident than accurate!The more confident we are about our predictions, the more likely we are overconfident. (p. 237)