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1 Measuring Civic Competence Across Europe: A Complex Picture Bryony Hoskins European Commission Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL )

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Presentation on theme: "1 Measuring Civic Competence Across Europe: A Complex Picture Bryony Hoskins European Commission Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL )"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Measuring Civic Competence Across Europe: A Complex Picture Bryony Hoskins European Commission Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL )

2 2 Active Citizenship in a Learning Context Aims of the Project: To propose indicators on active citizenship and learning active citizenship Evaluate and monitor the success of education and training policies on active citizenship citizenship To explore the relationship between the learning for and the practice of active citizenship

3 3 Policy Context Lisbon Strategy Progress report 2004 onwards Need indicators on active citizenship 2005 Council European Framework on Key Competence 2006 Council Conclusion coherent framework indicators and benchmarks 2007 First indicators on Active Citizenship 2007 EC reporting

4 4 SOCIAL EXCLUSION EXTREMISM GLOBALISATION MIGRATION/ RACISM APATHY/ RESENTMENT

5 5 Theoretical framework of active citizenship in a learning context

6 6 Theoretical model of a competence Competence Skills CognitiveAffective Attitudes Intended behaviour KnowledgeValues

7 7 European Framework on Key Competences Civic competence Knowledge: Democracy, justice, equality, citizenship, civil rights History, socio political events of the day Europe; main objectives, values and diversity Skills: Engage effectively with others, problem solving in the community, decision-making, critical and creative reflection Attitudes & Values: Respect for human rights, equality & democracy, Sense of belonging local, country, Europe, World Willingness to participate in democratic decision-making Respect shared values necessary for community cohesion i.e. democratic principles Sustainable development

8 8 Data 1999 CIVED study 28 countries 22 of which are European countries and 20 which are now EU countries. Belgium (french speaking), Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak republic, Slovenia, Sweden (Norway, Switzerland and Russian Federation) + USA, Australia, Hong Kong, Chile and Colombia Grade 8 students The study has a follow-up in 2009 (repeated measurement) Used scales instead of individual items

9 9 Limitations of measuring civic competence Only aspects that can be measured in international surveys (not build coalitions, cooperation, to interact) Only those measured by CivEd (not to know how to vote) Data from 1999 Only 14 years old

10 10 Civic competence & CIVED Compared lists Some uncovered: history & culture Most partially or poorly covered Removed Questions formulated to take left or right political positions removed (e.g. Immigration)

11 11 IEA Scales Cognitive TOT – Knowledge of content Knowledge KNOWL – Knowledge of content Skills SKILS – Skills in interpretation of material with civic or political content

12 12 IEA, CEDAR, CRELL Scales Attitudes & Values: DEM – Attitude towards democracy CTCON – Conventional citizenship CTSOC – Social movements WOMRT –Womens political & economic right MINOR –Opportunities for minorities EFFIC – Internal political efficacy Intended Actions: CONFS + SCON – Confidence School Participation POLAT – Political activities VOTE – Voting COMM – Community participation

13 13 FACTOR ANALYSIS

14 14 Civic Competence (CCCI) Social Justice (Values and attitudes) Participatory attitudes Cognition about democratic institutions POLATCONFSKNOWLSKILSSCON* Citizenship Values WOMRTMINORCOMMVOTECTCONCTSOCEFFICDEMR

15 15 Results of the Composite Indicator

16 16 Finland Sweden Norway Poland Lithuania Latvia Estonia Germany Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Greece Cyprus Italy Denmark Belgium (FR) England Portugal Slovenia Switzerland Russia

17 17 Civic Competence Composite Indicator Overall mixed results Not typical score board results Greece & Cyprus highest score

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20 20 Citizenship Values & Attitudes towards participation South and East Europe perform well for Participatory attitudes and Citizenship values Citizenship values: Romania and Lithuania high Southern European top (Greece and Cyprus) North and West Europe low Denmark, England, Belgium-Fr and Finland lowest

21 21 Citizenship Values & Attitudes towards participation South and East Europe perform well for Participatory attitudes and Citizenship values Participatory attitudes: South & East High: Cyprus, Portugal, Romania, Poland & Slovakia Most North & West Low: Denmark, Sweden & Finland/ Germany, England & Switzerland

22 22 Hypothesis Recent & less stable democracies young people value citizenship and the importance of participation more Longer democracies with greater levels of participation by adults young people apathetic

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25 25 Social Justice and Cognition about democratic Social justice & Cognition about Democratic Institutions; East Europe performs less well Social justice North, South & West Europe: Cyprus, Portugal, Norway & England perform well Former communist countries low: Russian Federation, Hungary, Bulgaria and Latvia Outlier Poland Cognition about democratic institutions North, South and West Europe top half East Europe bottom half Baltic states lowest Outlier Portugal low Outlier Slovakia and Poland high

26 26 Hypothesis Affects of Communism Young people no longer interested in equality A lack of citizenship education

27 27 Conclusions Limitations: –data availability: gaps in different components of civic competence –Age Group: 14 years old –1999 CCCI –84 indicators –Combines (Attitudes, Values, Knowledge & Skills) –4 dimensions: Cit. values, Social justice, Part. attitudes, Cog. dem. Instit. –Results very robust

28 28 Conclusions Mixed regional picture Length of time and stable democracy a key factor in results Most countries & regions have some work to do on citizenship education

29 29 Thank you


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