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Alison Leonard, Doctoral Research Student, Development Education Research Centre, Institute of Education, London.

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Presentation on theme: "Alison Leonard, Doctoral Research Student, Development Education Research Centre, Institute of Education, London."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alison Leonard, Doctoral Research Student, Development Education Research Centre, Institute of Education, London

2 Focus from the South Background Research sub-questions Numerous pupils, teachers and others have participated in school linking projects in Northern and Southern schools. My research seeks to understand how the linking process affects those at the Southern end of these relationships. 1. How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? 2. How do partnerships explore the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? 3. How are knowledge and understanding affected? 4. How are local Southern communities affected by the S/NELP? 5. To what extent is the S/NEL a sustainable process? GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

3 Development Issues? Over-simplification? This presentation reports: As a geography classroom teacher of the topic of development (and observer of others' teaching) I am very conscious of the risk of over- simplification of complex geographical concepts. Analysis of my qualitative research in Ghanaian, Ugandan and Tanzanian schools. How this research could promote critical thinking about some of the complex development issues which can emerge from linking relationships. GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

4 How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? Addressing complexity, understanding interdependence and learning to question and use different modes of thinking may help learners see themselves as integral to the picture they are trying to change (both as part of the problem and the solution) and prevent the reproduction of mechanisms that generate or maintain the problems that are addressed. ucation.html ucation.html GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

5 How does the S/NELP explore the United Nations' MDGs? Ghana So I would say that the empowering women, weve been able, its boosted the capabilities. We are able to stand out. And this linkage, with being here, Ive come to realise that even though there are a few boys here, the girls are able to stand firm on their decisions… not allowing the boys to pursue them downwards (PFG ) The UK secondary school has boys in its Sixth form. GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

6 How does the S/NELP explore the United Nations' MDGs? Ghana MDG3 Gender equality RMGhanaian culture sidelines the girl child from getting educated, from getting full education. They prefer the male child going to school. But with this girl child education advocates all over the place and with this Tortibo project most students, most girls, or most parents now understand the relevance of education. And its helping to promote... GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

7 How does the S/NELP explore MDG 3? Gender Equality …Gender equality and empowering women....Yeah, which eventually eradicates poverty and hunger. Because if women are in good jobs they can work, they can help support their families and the trend will change.(RM ) stm p?i=232 GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012 Image of grasscutter in a cage removed for copyright reasons. View the image here: ss/ stm ss/ stm

8 How does the S/NELP explore MDG 3? Gender Equality Visitor Exchanges + Female educational aspirations Im not too sure that any of the students from Krobo Girls would want to end up in the streets or selling something, when we see the Weald students come: the way they talk, the, the way they present themselves generally, the way they are able to express themselves the students there are in my school are also motivated to do the same things. So they wouldnt really want to drop out of school. Then when they go home they tend to maybe tell their friends, who are not interested in schooling, they tend to advise them to maybe worry their parents to send them to school. So I think this partnership is also helping to get more girls or more of us interested in schooling. (PFG, ) GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

9 How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? Uganda When the John Kyrle teachers come here they take lessons and the teachers here attend those lessons. And, there is that interaction, there is that learning from one another, and also, some teachers have been trained. Actually, one of our teachers for the Special Needs section, we have a Special Needs section, in our school we have a few blind students and blind teachers, so one of the blind teachers was sponsored for a six months course in the UK and when he came back he was able to work better in his department (DB, 42-47) GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

10 Complex geographical concepts emerging in a S/N Educational linking relationship How should the North help the South? HOW are resources shared at a global scale Should the South aspire to emulate the North? How can the gap between N and S be closed? How do we address contrasting values when they conflict with our sense of social justice? How might the North aspire to emulate the South? GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

11 How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? Uganda Development Gaps Teachers misconceptions Should the South aspire to emulate the North? How might the North aspire to emulate the South? How can the gap between N and S be closed? How should the North help the South? HOW are resources shared at a global scale? At times teachers may think life in England is so good, is so what? But when they go out and they see some of the difficulties they also face they can come back and organise the problems they have and the challenges they meet. (P, 61-63) GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

12 How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? Zanzibar Raising aspirations Comparison and aspiration A Head teachers interview responses: _012.mp3 So, instead of being disappointed, they get the morality of what they are to do and that is why even our results are becoming better and better. Because they compare themselves, that: oh, this is not enough, we have to be so and so and so. So, before going to visit our friends in England, our result to go to Form V, that is Advanced Level, was one student or two children in a year, but now we are going to twenty children and twenty five students. (MK, ) GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

13 Over-simplification of Development Issues? From the S/NELP Critical thinking Closing the global N/S gap The South can emulate the North and attain MEDC status Social justice issues have simple solutions- for example, girls rights to equality is a universal aspiration Global resource differences can be addressed through Aid Why does this gap exist? Is there one route to Development or several models? Social justice themes, such as gender equality and attitudes to sexual orientation need to be explored in context specific settings Some Aid can create new inequalities in the South GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

14 Promoting critical thinking? From the S/NELP Teacher responses? Why do gaps exist? Is there one route to Development or several models? Social justice themes, such as gender equality and attitudes to sexual orientation need to be explored in context specific settings Some Aid can create new inequalities in the South Own knowledge developed Challenging accepted orthodoxies: Turn It Upside Down? Intercultural education and critical discourse: sitting with uncomfortable, unsettling, confrontational discussions and creating Safe spaces Attitudes to educational improvement? GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

15 Tortibo Kindergarten The school link environment can be a major factor in influencing attitudes either way. Teachers need to be aware of the messages they are giving to children. Teaching about other cultures does not necessarily address negative attitudes. (Wood, 2006) GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

16 How are local Southern communities affected? Ghana GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

17 How do local Southern communities benefit? Ghana GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

18 How are local Southern communities affected? Zanzibar, Tanzania GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

19 How do local Southern communities benefit? Zanzibar, Tanzania GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

20 To what extent is S/NEL a sustainable process? Issues Challenges Time-scale Funding Personnel Commitment Communication Exit strategies How important is the link? Grants vs fund-raising? Committee vs coordinator Competing educational agenda Uncomfortable realities? More uncomfortable realities? GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

21 Any questions? Your question + GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

22 How are knowledge and understanding affected? Promoting critical thinking … equality? Challenging stereotypes in Safe Spaces Whose values: Advancement and progress? Slides 16 and 17: units/secondary/tribal.htm GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

23 How do teachers use links in teaching and learning? Uganda Visitor Exchanges Reciprocity and equality? We expected Exchange Visits, between Nakigo and Lady Hawkins. You know it is a one- sided affair, because the students and teachers in Nakigo may not be able to afford an air-ticket to go to Lady Hawkins, and so I think that one has been lacking, in that we have not been able to get either the teachers or the students visiting, to make a return visit to UK. DB We have just checked on our visas this morning. Sorry to inform you that we have not been granted visas. They recon that we are not genuine as exchange visitors and they believe that we would not return to Uganda. They also claim that we shall not be able to afford our return flight and that our host will not sustain us through the days stated for the visit! Am indeed surprised given the paperwork that we presented to them. They even think we are not teachers even after documentation from the schools and pay slips. 06/11 GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

24 Thanks to those at: Kisiki College, Namutumba, Uganda Krobo Girls Senior Secondary School, Odumase- Krobo, Ghana Makunduchi Secondary School, Makunduchi, Zanzibar, Tanzania Nakigo Senior Secondary School, Iganga, Uganda GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012

25 References: Ash, C and Severs, P. (2004), Do you ask a hungry man if he wants food?, School Science Review, 86, pp43-47 Bourn, D. and Bain, M. (2011) Impact of School Linking on the Global South- Case Study of Uganda, London, Link Community Development/Institute of Education Edge, K., Frayman, K., and Lawrie, J. (2009) The Influence of North-South School Partnerships: Examining the evidence from schools in the UK, Africa and Asia. London: Institute of Education. GA (2007) Primary Geographer: Focus on School Partnerships and Global Dimension Geographical Association. Lambert, D and Morgan, J. (2011) Geography and Development: Development education in schools and the part played by geography teachers, Development Education Research Centre Research Paper No.2, London: DERC Institute of Education Leonard, A (2008) Global school relationships: school linking and modern challenges in Bourn, (ed.) Development Education: Debates and dialogues. London: Institute of Education Leonard, A. (2012) A Southern Perspective on The South/North Educational Linking process (S/NELP). Early stage analysis from Zanzibar. Accessible via website Click after org in hyperlink to open.website Martin, F. (2007) School Linking: A Controversial Issue, in Claire, H. and Holden, C. (eds.) The challenge of teaching controversial issues, Stoke-On-Trent: Trentham Books Martin, F. (2009) Children's Voices and Global School Partnerships, GTE presentation, Wood, S (2006) Learning from Linking in Tide~ Talk GA 2012 conference, The Geographies of Difference, Reporting Research, 14 April, 2012: The South-North Educational Linking Process (S/NELP): Comparing Southern perspectives


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