4 Places to see Shops and places to eat Public services Parks and open spacesMuseums and galleriesIndustry and commerceTransport facilitiesResidential areas
5 Calculating risk Who is at risk? Worst case outcome: Learners TeachersOther employeesGeneral publicWorst case outcome:InconvenienceMinor injuryInjury/illnessMajor injuryFatalityProbability of occurrence:UnlikelyRarelyInfrequentlySometimesOftenRisk rating = Worst case outcome x probability of occurrence PLAN YOUR RESPONSE!
6 Using photographic images Find photos of your fieldwork area from (just key in the grid square).Or use Google Earth to focus on the study area.Other images may also be found on the local council website.Or visit the area before, take photos and show these in class.Print and laminate photos for group work – encourage students to identify features that could be investigated.
7 Things to study Pedestrians Traffic Shops/business Bi-polar analysis CBD modelsMicroclimateBuilding materialStreet furnitureDisabled accessBuilding designSound mappingUrban art
8 Getting started… Identify and define key concepts and/or processes: Is there a relevant theory or model?What processes are shaping the area?What are the variables that can be measured?eg: Core-frame modelsredevelopmentpedestrian flowszonation or quarters
9 Data collection strategies Locate the study areaDelimiting the areaUsing appropriate mapsIdentify methods to investigate the question or hypothesisPrepare questionnaires and log sheetsCarry out pilot surveysIn the classroomIn the school groundsAt homeIdentify sampling methodsRandom, systematic, stratified?How many responses?Describe and justify these methodsLearners should make notes from the outset
10 Doing what worksEffective fieldwork is student-centred not teacher-led.Learners should be able to take ownership of their fieldwork.This will enable them to respond the requirements of the assessment more effectively.Use qualitative and ethnographic methods of data collection as well as more traditional quantitative methods.
11 Preparation: Things learners can do: Write down descriptive words – first impressions?Take photographs – what would you see?Note land uses – what wouldn’t you see?Listen – what would you hear?Assess light and lighting – how safe is it?Study buildings – age, design, materials?Consider accessibility – can a buggy get there?
12 Sampling Sampling strategies: Random (numbers generated using chart or calculator)Systematic (select an appropriate and representative sample)Stratified (select proportionate amounts from more than one area or population)See for good advise on sampling methods.
13 Using equipmentSound – use noise meters to gather data for sound pattern mapsLight – this can affect pedestrian flows (sunny side of street or defensible space)Distance – measure length of shop fronts, distance to car parks (tapes, pacing, large-scale maps or GPS)Ecology – simple quadrat and transect surveys will work in parkland, copses and playing fieldsMicroclimate – measure wind speed and direction and wet and dry bulb temperaturesPollution – (as well as noise meters) monitor acidity of rainfall, survey particle deposition, or the pollution of an urban water course
14 Using photographyMost learners now have digital cameras on their mobile phonesUse both wide angle and close-up shotsMonitor change over timeAssess flow volumesUse video sequences
15 Secondary data sources Local libraries have reference sections which may still have very useful map resources (such as Goad plans) and planning documents.Other useful organisations may include your local university, environmental pressure groups, tourist information offices, etc.Online resources are dependent on what the local authority provides but can be a rich source of information.
16 Online data sourcesindex.html - for census and other official data.See also local authority websites with useful links.See ratinglists/voa.gov.uk for rateable values for business properties.See for data and graphs using earlier census data.Find property values atUse for ACORN profiles.See also insurance quote websites for comparisons of similar properties.
17 Producing a report: Data Presentation Analysis and Interpretation Conclusion and Evaluationis very useful
18 Data PresentationLearners should know how to collate and sort the information collected and how to present it in appropriate ways.They should record what they have learned and what the information shows.Limitations and improvements should be identified at every stage.See for some really wacky inspiration!
19 Using simple ICT (Excel) Garden waste20Paper & cardboard18Kitchen waste17General household9Glass7Wood/furniture5Scrap metal/white goodsDense plastic4Soil3Plastic filmTextilesMetal cans/foilDisposable nappies2Determine the most effective methods.
20 Analysis and Interpretation Learners should know how todescribe, interpret and analyse theirresults. Suitable quantitativetechniques include:Mean, median and modePercentagesInter-quartile rangeStandard deviationNearest neighbour analysisMann Whitney U testSpearman rank correlationChi squared analysis
21 Conclusion and Evaluation Learners should be able to relate their conclusions to their results and initial question or hypothesis.They should identify any problems encountered in carrying out the research.They should comment on the accuracy of their results and the validity of the conclusions.And they should know ways in which the investigation may be improved and extended.
22 Is Geography about fieldwork? Or is fieldwork about Geography?
23 How many field trips have killed learners’ interest in Geography How many field trips have killed learners’ interest in Geography? How many learners have you seen come alive on a field trip?
24 Fieldwork should inspire, enthuse and energise learners… it is worth much more than a means to an end for assessment!