Presentation on theme: "IR2501 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Lecture 4"— Presentation transcript:
1IR2501 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Lecture 4 NEO-REALISM(Structural Realism)
2Key Text: Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics (1979)
3Nature of Theory Abstraction Fact versus Theory Theory: an intellectual construction by which we select facts and interpret them. (Example: Concept of the economy in Economics)
4Waltz and International Theory Theory obviously cannot explain the accidental or account for unexpected events.Theories deal with regularities and repetitions that are possible only if these can be identified.
5Waltz and International Theory A theory is a depiction of the organisation of a domain and of the connections among its parts.A theory indicates that some factors are more important than others and specifies relations among them.
6Waltz and International Theory In reality, everything is related to everything else, and one domain cannot be separated from others.Theory isolates one realm from all others in order to deal with it intellectually.To isolate a realm is a precondition to developing a theory that will explain what goes on within it.
7Waltz and International Theory “Complexity” does not work against theory. Rather, theory is a means of dealing with complexity.For example, given the concept of the market—a bounded economic domain—economists have been able to develop further concepts and draw connections among them.An assumption or a set of assumptions is necessary.
8Waltz and International Theory The assumptions on which theories are built are radical simplifications of the world and are useful because they are such.
9KEY POINTSTo define a structure requires ignoring how units relate with one another (how they interact) and concentrating on how they stand in relation to one another (how they are arranged or positioned. Interactions. . .take place at the level of units. How units stand in relation to one another. . .is not the property of the units. The arrangement of units is a property of the system.
10Three PropositionsFirst, structures may endure while personality, behaviour, and interactions vary widely. Structure is sharply distinguished from actions and interactions.Second, a structural definition applies to realms of widely different substance as long as the arrangement of parts is similar.Third, because this is so, theories developed for one realm may with some modification be applicable to other realms as well.
11Structural RealismInternational Politics is essentially a struggle for power not because of human nature but due to anarchyAnarchy is not chaos, but the absence of a political authorityThree elements of the international system (Waltz): (1) organizing principle (2) differentiation of units & (3) distribution of capabilitiesTwo different organizing principles : anarchy and hierarchy
12Structural RealismAnarchy reflects to the decentralised nature of international politicsHierarchy is the basis of the domestic orderUnits of the international system are functionally similar sovereign statesDistribution of capabilities across units is key to understanding international politics
13Structural RealismDistribution of power in the international system is the key independent variable to explain war and peace, alliance politics, and the balance of powerRank-ordering of states allows to differentiate the Great Powers that exist at any particular momentNumber of Great Powers determines the structure of the international system (Unipolar, Bipolar, Multipolar)
14Structural RealismSelf-help is main principle of state behaviour (Remember: the assumption of anarchy)The ultimate objective of states is not power, but securityPower maximizing versus security maximizing (Power maximization is dysfunctional because it provokes a counterbalancing coalition of states