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Chapter 2: Realism Is international anarchy the permissive cause of war? © 2014 Cynthia Weber.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Realism Is international anarchy the permissive cause of war? © 2014 Cynthia Weber."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Realism Is international anarchy the permissive cause of war? © 2014 Cynthia Weber

2 Learning aims: Understand the international anarchy myth Tell the difference between realism and neorealism Understand developments in Waltzs thinking and why these matter Critically reflect on the work that fear does for the international anarchy myth © 2014 Cynthia Weber

3 Last week: Introduction Culture: an ensemble of stories we tell about ourselves (Geertz, 1975) Ideology: Conscious (e.g. liberalism) and unconscious (e.g. boys will be boys) The myth function in IR: cultural interpretation Myth functionNatural Fact © 2014 Cynthia Weber

4 (Neo) Realism Flashcard Concepts: Sovereign States Human Nature International Anarchy Fear Myth: international anarchy is the permissive cause of war Key thinkers: Hans Morgenthau & Kenneth Waltz © 2014 Cynthia Weber

5 Realism vs. Neorealism (table 2.1) RealismNeorealism Interest of StatesSurvival How to achieve survivalIncrease power because world government is unachievable Human natureMan is flawed and therefore prone to conflict. This explains why cooperation is never guaranteed and world government is unachievable Man may or may not be flawed. Human nature is not essential to an explanation of conflict AnarchyThe environment in which sovereign nation-states act Describes the social relations among sovereign nation-states that causally explain why wars occur © 2014 Cynthia Weber

6 Causes of war for Waltz (table 2.2) LocationDescriptionType of cause First imageNature of manImmediate Second imageInternational organization of states and societies Immediate Third imageInternational anarchyPermissive © 2014 Cynthia Weber

7 Waltzian neorealism (table 2.3) Structure Ordering principleFormal differentiationDistribution of power Domestic Hierarchy Centered Heterogeneous Dissimilar Monopoly Global Anarchy Decentered HeterogeneousOligopoly Consequences Political processesRelationshipsGoals DomesticSpecializationHigh interdependenceMaximize welfare Global Intimidation Balancing Low interdependenceMaximize security © 2014 Cynthia Weber

8 Theory activity: International anarchy is the permissive cause of war Aim: Be able to understand the workings of Waltzs myth (international anarchy is the permissive cause of war) through a real world example Scenario: Iran has acquired nuclear weapons Divide into five groups: Iran, USA, US ally (Britain), Neutral state (Sweden) and World government (quasi world government/ UN) © 2014 Cynthia Weber

9 Theory activity cont. What would your country do in the different scenarios? Use the table to chart out the different possibilities USAUKIranSweden World government Quasi-world government No world or quasi-world government © 2014 Cynthia Weber

10 How does Lord of the Flies represent hierarchy and anarchy? How does Lord of the Flies represent hierarchy and anarchy? (table 2.4) HierarchyAnarchy Characterized by rules, reason, law and order, all of which are guaranteed by the presence of adults Characterized by the absence of guarantees to order or reason because of the absence of adults © 2014 Cynthia Weber

11 What is typical and what is deviant in the two worlds of the Lord of the Flies? (table 2.5) Typical Familiar world: Hierarchy Island world: Anarchy Deviant Familiar world: Anarchy Island world: Hierarchy © 2014 Cynthia Weber

12 Lord of the Flies (box 2.2) 1. Loss of hierarchy (lack of adults) 2. Reestablishment of hierarchy with rules and elections (conch shell) Fear becomes widespread (belief in beast) This is what goes without saying in Waltzs myth 3. Hierarchy fails (Jack leaves and starts rival group) 4. Conflict occurs (Jack and Ralphs groups fight/Piggy is killed) 5. Anarchy ends (boys rescued and reintroduction of adults) Where does fear figure in Waltzs myth as enacted in Lord of the Flies? © 2014 Cynthia Weber

13 Lord of the Flies (table 2.6) The locations of fear in Lord of the Flies LocationDescriptionIllustration First imageHuman natureJack and his followers increasing savagery Second imageInternational organization of states and societies Jacks bad tribe against Ralphs good tribe Third imageInternational anarchyCompetitive, self-help system in which boys create security dilemma on island None of Waltzs imagesIrrationally generated by the boys themselves and externalized The beast © 2014 Cynthia Weber

14 Film activity: Lord of the Flies and fear Aim Use film Lord of the Flies to investigate how Waltzs myth international anarchy is the permissive cause of war functions and to show that FEAR is a necessary supplement to this myth Discuss Discuss content of film: plot, characters and cinematic effects Answer How does the film make sense of the world? What does the film say is typical and deviant in that world? Where is FEAR located in the film? © 2014 Cynthia Weber

15 Next week: Idealism Is there an international society? Film: Independence Day Domestic analogy © 2014 Cynthia Weber


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