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Module 14: Network Structures

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1 Module 14: Network Structures
Background Motivation Topology Network Types Communication Design Strategies Applied Operating System Concepts

2 Applied Operating System Concepts
General Structure node 2 node 1 disk processors disk processors network node 3 node N disk processors disk processors Applied Operating System Concepts

3 Applied Operating System Concepts
Node Types Mainframes (IBM3090, etc.) example applications: airline reservations banking systems many large attached disks Workstations (Sun, Apollo, Microvax, RISC6000, etc.) computer-aided design office-information systems private databases zero, one or two medium size disks Applied Operating System Concepts

4 Applied Operating System Concepts
Nodes Types (Cont.) Personal Computers example applications: office information systems small private databases zero or one small disk Applied Operating System Concepts

5 Applied Operating System Concepts
Motivation Resource sharing sharing and printing files at remote sites processing information in a distributed database using remote specialized hardware devices Computation speedup – concurrent computation, load sharing Reliability – detect and recover from site failure, function transfer, reintegrate failed site Communication – message passing Applied Operating System Concepts

6 Applied Operating System Concepts
Topology Sites in the system can be physically connected in a variety of ways; they are compared with respect to the following criteria: Basic cost. How expensive is it to link the various sites in the system? Communication cost. How long does it take to send a message from site A to site B? Reliability. If a link or a site in the system fails, can the remaining sites still communicate with each other? The various topologies are depicted as graphs whose nodes correspond to sites. An edge from node A to node B corresponds to a direct connection between the two sites. The following six items depict various network topologies. Applied Operating System Concepts

7 Fully connected network
Partially connected network Applied Operating System Concepts

8 Applied Operating System Concepts
Tree-structured network Star network Applied Operating System Concepts

9 Applied Operating System Concepts
Ring networks: (a) Single links. (b) Double links Applied Operating System Concepts

10 Applied Operating System Concepts
Bus network: (a) Linear bus. (b) Ring bus. Applied Operating System Concepts

11 Applied Operating System Concepts
Network Types Local-Area Network (LAN) – designed to cover small geographical area. Multiaccess bus, ring, or star network. Speed  10 megabits/second, or higher. Broadcast is fast and cheap. Nodes: usually workstations and/or personal computers a few (usually one or two) mainframes. Applied Operating System Concepts

12 Applied Operating System Concepts
Network Types (Cont.) Depiction of typical LAN: Applied Operating System Concepts

13 Applied Operating System Concepts
Network Types (Cont.) Wide-Area Network (WAN) – links geographically separated sites. Point-to-point connections over long-haul lines (often leased from a phone company). Speed  100 kilobits/second. Broadcast usually requires multiple messages. Nodes: usually a high percentage of mainframes Applied Operating System Concepts

14 Applied Operating System Concepts
Communication The design of a communication network must address four basic issues: Naming and name resolution: How do two processes locate each other to communicate? Routing strategies. How are messages sent through the network? Connection strategies. How do two processes send a sequence of messages? Contention. The network is a shared resource, so how do we resolve conflicting demands for its use? Applied Operating System Concepts

15 Naming and Name Resolution
Name systems in the network Address messages with the process-id. Identify processes on remote systems by <host-name, identifier> pair. Domain name service (DNS) – specifies the naming structure of the hosts, as well as name to address resolution (Internet). Applied Operating System Concepts

16 Applied Operating System Concepts
Routing Strategies Fixed routing. A path from A to B is specified in advance; path changes only if a hardware failure disables it. Since the shortest path is usually chosen, communication costs are minimized. Fixed routing cannot adapt to load changes. Ensures that messages will be delivered in the order in which they were sent. Virtual circuit. A path from A to B is fixed for the duration of one session. Different sessions involving messages from A to B may have different paths. Partial remedy to adapting to load changes. Applied Operating System Concepts

17 Routing Strategies (Cont.)
Dynamic routing. The path used to send a message form site A to site B is chosen only when a message is sent. Usually a site sends a message to another site on the link least used at that particular time. Adapts to load changes by avoiding routing messages on heavily used path. Messages may arrive out of order. This problem can be remedied by appending a sequence number to each message. Applied Operating System Concepts

18 Connection Strategies
Circuit switching. A permanent physical link is established for the duration of the communication (i.e., telephone system). Message switching. A temporary link is established for the duration of one message transfer (cf. post-office mailing system). Packet switching. Messages of variable length are divided into fixed-length packets which are sent to the destination. Each packet may take a different path through the network. The packets must be reassembled into messages as they arrive. Circuit switching requires setup time, but incurs less overhead for shipping each message, and may waste network bandwidth. Message and packet switching require less setup time, but incur more overhead per message. Applied Operating System Concepts

19 Applied Operating System Concepts
Contention Several sites may want to transmit information over a link simultaneously. Techniques to avoid repeated collisions include: CSMA/CD. Carrier sense with multiple access (CSMA); collision detection (CD) A site determines whether another message is currently being transmitted over that link. If two or more sites begin transmitting at exactly the same time, then they will register a CD and will stop transmitting. When the system is very busy, many collisions may occur, and thus performance may be degraded. SCMA/CD is used successfully in the Ethernet system, the most common network system. Applied Operating System Concepts

20 Applied Operating System Concepts
Contention (Cont.) Token passing. A unique message type, known as a token, continuously circulates in the system (usually a ring structure). A site that wants to transmit information must wait until the token arrives. When the site completes its round of message passing, it retransmits the token. A token-passing scheme is used by the IBM and Apollo systems. Message slots. A number of fixed-length message slots continuously circulate in the system (usually a ring structure). Since a slot can contain only fixed-sized messages, a single logical message may have to be broken down into a number of smaller packets, each of which is sent in a separate slot. This scheme has been adopted in the experimental Cambridge Digital Communication Ring Applied Operating System Concepts

21 Applied Operating System Concepts
Design Strategies The communication network is partitioned into the following multiple layers; Physical layer – handles the mechanical and electrical details of the physical transmission of a bit stream. Data-link layer – handles the frames, or fixed-length parts of packets, including any error detection and recovery that occurred in the physical layer. Network layer – provides connections and routes packets in the communication network, including handling the address of outgoing packets, decoding the address of incoming packets, and maintaining routing information for proper response to changing load levels. Applied Operating System Concepts

22 Design Strategies (Cont.)
Transport layer – responsible for low-level network access and for message transfer between clients, including partitioning messages into packets, maintaining packet order, controlling flow, and generating physical addresses. Session layer – implements sessions, or process-to-process communications protocols. Presentation layer – resolves the differences in formats among the various sites in the network, including character conversions, and half duplex/full duplex (echoing). Application layer – interacts directly with the users’ deals with file transfer, remote-login protocols and electronic mail, as well as schemas for distributed databases. Applied Operating System Concepts

23 Module 16: Distributed Coordination
Event Ordering Mutual Exclusion Deadlock Handling Election Algorithms Applied Operating System Concepts

24 Applied Operating System Concepts
Event Ordering Happened-before relation (denoted by ). If A and B are events in the same process, and A was executed before B, then A  B. If A is the event of sending a message by one process and B is the event of receiving that message by another process, then A  B. If A  B and B  C then A  C. Applied Operating System Concepts

25 Applied Operating System Concepts
Implementation of  Associate a timestamp with each system event. Require that for every pair of events A and B, if A  B, then the timestamp of A is less than the timestamp of B. Within each process Pi a logical clock, LCi is associated. The logical clock can be implemented as a simple counter that is incremented between any two successive events executed within a process. A process advances its logical clock when it receives a message whose timestamp is greater than the current value of its logical clock. If the timestamps of two events A and B are the same, then the events are concurrent, or we may use the process identity numbers to break ties and to create a total ordering. Applied Operating System Concepts

26 Distributed Mutual Exclusion (DME)
Assumptions The system consists of n processes; each process Pi resides at a different processor. Each process has a critical section that requires mutual exclusion. Requirement If Pi is executing in its critical section, then no other process Pj is executing in its critical section. We present two algorithms to ensure the mutual exclusion execution of processes in their critical sections. Applied Operating System Concepts

27 DME: Centralized Approach
One of the processes in the system is chosen to coordinate the entry to the critical section. A process that wants to enter its critical section sends a request message to the coordinator. The coordinator decides which process can enter the critical section next, and its sends that process a reply message. When the process receives a reply message from the coordinator, it enters its critical section. After exiting its critical section, the process sends a release message to the coordinator and proceeds with its execution. This scheme requires three messages per critical-section entry: request reply release Applied Operating System Concepts

28 DME: Fully Distributed Approach
When process Pi wants to enter its critical section, it generates a new timestamp, TS, and sends the message request (Pi, TS) to all other processes in the system. When process Pj receives a request message, it may reply immediately or it may defer sending a reply back. When process Pi receives a reply message from all other processes in the system, it can enter its critical section. After exiting its critical section, the process sends reply messages to all its deferred requests. Applied Operating System Concepts

29 DME: Fully Distributed Approach (Cont.)
The decision whether process Pj replies immediately to a request(Pi, TS) message or defers its reply is based on three factors: If Pj is in its critical section, then it defers its reply to Pi. If Pj does not want to enter its critical section, then it sends a reply immediately to Pi. If Pj wants to enter its critical section but has not yet entered it, then it compares its own request timestamp with the timestamp TS. If its own request timestamp is greater than TS, then it sends a reply immediately to Pi (Pi asked first). Otherwise, the reply is deferred. Applied Operating System Concepts

30 Desirable Behavior of Fully Distributed Approach
Freedom from deadlock is ensured. Freedom from starvation is ensured, since entry to the critical section is scheduled according to the timestamp ordering. The timestamp ordering ensures that processes are served in a first-come, first served order. The number of messages per critical-section entry is x (n – 1). This is the number of required messages per critical-section entry when processes act independently and concurrently. Applied Operating System Concepts

31 Three Undesirable Consequences
The processes need to know the identity of all other processes in the system, which makes the dynamic addition and removal of processes more complex. If one of the processes fails, then the entire scheme collapses. This can be dealt with by continuously monitoring the state of all the processes in the system. Processes that have not entered their critical section must pause frequently to assure other processes that they intend to enter the critical section. This protocol is therefore suited for small, stable sets of cooperating processes. Applied Operating System Concepts

32 Applied Operating System Concepts
Deadlock Prevention Resource-ordering deadlock-prevention – define a global ordering among the system resources. Assign a unique number to all system resources. A process may request a resource with unique number i only if it is not holding a resource with a unique number grater than i. Simple to implement; requires little overhead. Banker’s algorithm – designate one of the processes in the system as the process that maintains the information necessary to carry out the Banker’s algorithm. Also implemented easily, but may require too much overhead. Applied Operating System Concepts

33 Timestamped Deadlock-Prevention Scheme
Each process Pi is assigned a unique priority number Priority numbers are used to decide whether a process Pi should wait for a process Pj; otherwise Pi is rolled back. The scheme prevents deadlocks. For every edge Pi  Pj in the wait-for graph, Pi has a higher priority than Pj. Thus a cycle cannot exist. Applied Operating System Concepts

34 Applied Operating System Concepts
Wait-Die Scheme Based on a nonpreemptive technique. If Pi requests a resource currently held by Pj, Pi is allowed to wait only if it has a smaller timestamp than does Pj (Pi is older than Pj). Otherwise, Pi is rolled back (dies). Example: Suppose that processes P1, P2, and P3 have timestamps 5, 10, and 15 respectively. if P1 request a resource held by P2, then P1 will wait. If P3 requests a resource held by P2, then P3 will be rolled back. Applied Operating System Concepts

35 Applied Operating System Concepts
Would-Wait Scheme Based on a preemptive technique; counterpart to the wait-die system. If Pi requests a resource currently held by Pj, Pi is allowed to wait only if it has a larger timestamp than does Pj (Pi is younger than Pj). Otherwise Pj is rolled back (Pj is wounded by Pi). Example: Suppose that processes P1, P2, and P3 have timestamps 5, 10, and 15 respectively. If P1 requests a resource held by P2, then the resource will be preempted from P2 and P2 will be rolled back. If P3 requests a resource held by P2, then P3 will wait. Applied Operating System Concepts

36 Deadlock Detection – Centralized Approach
Each site keeps a local wait-for graph. The nodes of the graph correspond to all the processes that are currently either holding or requesting any of the resources local to that site. A global wait-for graph is maintained in a single coordination process; this graph is the union of all local wait-for graphs. There are three different options (points in time) when the wait-for graph may be constructed: 1. Whenever a new edge is inserted or removed in one of the local wait-for graphs. 2. Periodically, when a number of changes have occurred in a wait-for graph. 3. Whenever the coordinator needs to invoke the cycle-detection algorithm. Unnecessary rollbacks may occur as a result of false cycles. Applied Operating System Concepts

37 Detection Algorithm Based on Option 3
Append unique identifiers (timestamps) to requests form different sites. When process Pi, at site A, requests a resource from process Pj, at site B, a request message with timestamp TS is sent. The edge Pi  Pj with the label TS is inserted in the local wait-for of A. The edge is inserted in the local wait-for graph of B only if B has received the request message and cannot immediately grant the requested resource. Applied Operating System Concepts

38 Applied Operating System Concepts
The Algorithm 1. The controller sends an initiating message to each site in the system. 2. On receiving this message, a site sends its local wait-for graph to the coordinator. 3. When the controller has received a reply from each site, it constructs a graph as follows: (a) The constructed graph contains a vertex for every process in the system. (b) The graph has an edge Pi  Pj if and only if (1) there is an edge Pi  Pj in one of the wait-for graphs, or (2) an edge Pi  Pj with some label TS appears in more than one wait-for graph. If the constructed graph contains a cycle  deadlock. Applied Operating System Concepts

39 Fully Distributed Approach
All controllers share equally the responsibility for detecting deadlock. Every site constructs a wait-for graph that represents a part of the total graph. We add one additional node Pex to each local wait-for graph. If a local wait-for graph contains a cycle that does not involve node Pex, then the system is in a deadlock state. A cycle involving Pex implies the possibility of a deadlock. To ascertain whether a deadlock does exist, a distributed deadlock-detection algorithm must be invoked. Applied Operating System Concepts

40 Applied Operating System Concepts
Election Algorithms Determine where a new copy of the coordinator should be restarted. Assume that a unique priority number is associated with each active process in the system, and assume that the priority number of process Pi is i. Assume a one-to-one correspondence between processes and sites. The coordinator is always the process with the largest priority number. When a coordinator fails, the algorithm must elect that active process with the largest priority number. Two algorithms, the bully algorithm and a ring algorithm, can be used to elect a new coordinator in case of failures. Applied Operating System Concepts

41 Applied Operating System Concepts
Bully Algorithm Applicable to systems where every process can send a message to every other process in the system. If process Pi sends a request that is not answered by the coordinator within a time interval T, assume that the coordinator has failed; Pi tries to elect itself as the new coordinator. Pi sends an election message to every process with a higher priority number, Pi then waits for any of these processes to answer within T. Applied Operating System Concepts

42 Bully Algorithm (Cont.)
If no response within T, assume that all processes with numbers greater than i have failed; Pi elects itself the new coordinator. If answer is received, Pi begins time interval T´, waiting to receive a message that a process with a higher priority number has been elected. If no message is sent within T´, assume the process with a higher number has failed; Pi should restart the algorithm. Applied Operating System Concepts

43 Bully Algorithm (Cont.)
If Pi is not the coordinator, then, at any time during execution, Pi may receive one of the following two messages from process Pj. Pj is the new coordinator (j > i). Pi, in turn, records this information. Pj started an election (j < i). Pi sends a response to Pj and begins its own election algorithm, provided that Pi has not already initiated such an election. After a failed process recovers, it immediately begins execution of the same algorithm. If there are no active processes with higher numbers, the recovered process forces all processes with lower number to let it become the coordinator process, even if there is a currently active coordinator with a lower number. Applied Operating System Concepts

44 Applied Operating System Concepts
Ring Algorithm Applicable to systems organized as a ring (logically or physically). Assumes that the links are unidirectional, and that processes send their messages to their right neighbors. Each process maintains an active list, consisting of all the priority numbers of all active processes in the system when the algorithm ends. If process Pi detects a coordinator failure, I creates a new active list that is initially empty. It then sends a message elect(i) to its right neighbor, and adds the number i to its active list. Applied Operating System Concepts

45 Applied Operating System Concepts
Ring Algorithm (Cont.) If Pi receives a message elect(j) from the process on the left, it must respond in one of three ways: 1. If this is the first elect message it has seen or sent, Pi creates a new active list with the numbers i and j. It then sends the message elect(i), followed by the message elect(j). 2. If i  j, then Pi adds j to its active list and forwards elect(j) to its right neighbor. 3. If i=j, then the new active list is complete, and the largest number in the list identifies the new coordinator. Applied Operating System Concepts

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