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Process Description and Control

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1 Process Description and Control
Chapter 2

2 Process A program in execution
An instance of a program running on a computer The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor A unit of activity characterized by the execution of a sequence of instructions, a current state, and an associated set of system instructions

3 Process Management A process is a program in execution. It is a unit of work within the system. Program is a passive entity, process is an active entity. Process needs resources to accomplish its task CPU, memory, I/O, files Initialization data Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources

4 Process Management Single-threaded process has one program counter specifying location of next instruction to execute Process executes instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion Multi-threaded process has one program counter per thread Typically system has many processes, some user, some operating system running concurrently on one or more CPUs Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads

5 Process Elements Identifier State Priority Program counter
Memory pointers Context data I/O status information Accounting information

6 Process Control Block Contains the process elements
Created and managed by the operating system Allows support for multiple processes

7 Process Control Block

8 Trace of Process Sequence of instruction that execute for a process
Dispatcher switches the processor from one process to another

9 Example Execution

10 Trace of Processes

11 Assume OS only allows execution of 6 instructions before interrupt

12 CPU Switch From Process to Process

13 Context Switch When CPU switches to another process, the system must save the state of the old process and load the saved state for the new process Context-switch time is overhead; the system does no useful work while switching Time dependent on hardware support

14 Two-State Process Model
Process may be in one of two states Running Not-running

15 Not-Running Process in a Queue

16 Processes Not-running Blocked
ready to execute Blocked waiting for I/O Dispatcher cannot just select the process that has been in the queue the longest because it may be blocked

17 A Five-State Model Running Ready Blocked New Exit

18 Five-State Process Model

19 Five State Model Transition
NULL----NEW: A new process is created due to any of the four reasons described in the creation of processes (New batch Job, Interactive logon, To provide service & Spawning). NEW-----READY: Operating system moves a process from new state to ready state, when it is prepared to accept an additional process. There could be limit on number of processes to be admitted to the ready state. READY---RUNNING: Any process can be moved from ready to running state when ever it is scheduled.

20 Five State Model Transition
RUNNING----EXIT: The currently running process is terminated if it has signaled its completion or it is aborted. RUNNING----READY: The most commonly known situation is that currently running process has taken its share of time for execution (Time out). Also, in some events a process may have to be admitted from running to ready if a high priority process has occurred.

21 Five State Model Transition
RUNNING----BLOCKED: A process is moved to the blocked state, if it has requested some data for which it may have to wait. For example the process may have requested a resource such as data file or shared data from virtual memory, which is not ready at that time. BLOCKED---READY: A process is moved to the ready state, if the event for which it is waiting has occurred.

22 Five State Model Transition
There are two more transition but are not shown for clarity. READY----EXIT: This is the case for example a parent process has generated a single or multiple children processes & they are in the ready state. Now during the execution of the process it may terminate any child process, therefore, it will directly go to exit state. BLOCKED----EXIT: Similarly as above, during the execution of a parent process any child process waiting for an event to occur may directly go to exit if the parent itself terminates.

23 Process States

24 Using Two Queues

25 Multiple Blocked Queues

26 Ready Queue And Various I/O Device Queues

27 Suspended Processes Processor is faster than I/O so all processes could be waiting for I/O Swap these processes to disk to free up more memory Blocked state becomes suspend state when swapped to disk Two new states Blocked/Suspend Ready/Suspend

28 One Suspend State

29 Reasons for Process Suspension

30 Processes and Resources

31 Process Image (in Memory)
Contains temporary data (function var, return address, local var) (optional) Memory dynamically allocated during process runtime Contains global var Program code

32 Process Image

33 Process Creation Assign a unique process identifier
Allocate space for the process Initialize process control block Set up appropriate linkages Ex: add new process to linked list used for scheduling queue Create of expand other data structures Ex: maintain an accounting file

34 Process Creation

35 Process Creation Parent process create children processes, which, in turn create other processes, forming a tree of processes Resource sharing Parent and children share all resources Children share subset of parent’s resources Parent and child share no resources Execution Parent and children execute concurrently Parent waits until children terminate

36 Process Termination Process executes last statement and asks the operating system to delete it (exit) Output data from child to parent (via wait) Process’ resources are deallocated by operating system Parent may terminate execution of children processes (abort) Child has exceeded allocated resources Task assigned to child is no longer required If parent is exiting Some operating system do not allow child to continue if its parent terminates All children terminated - cascading termination

37 Process Termination Reasons for process termination

38 Process Termination Reasons for process termination

39 Modes of Execution User mode System mode, control mode, or kernel mode
Less-privileged mode User programs typically execute in this mode System mode, control mode, or kernel mode More-privileged mode Kernel of the operating system

40 When to Switch a Process
Clock interrupt process has executed for the maximum allowable time slice I/O interrupt Memory fault memory address is in virtual memory so it must be brought into main memory

41 When to Switch a Process
Trap error or exception occurred may cause process to be moved to Exit state Supervisor call such as file open

42 Change of Process State
Save context of processor including program counter and other registers Update the process control block of the process that is currently in the Running state Move process control block to appropriate queue – ready; blocked; ready/suspend Select another process for execution Update the process control block of the process selected Update memory-management data structures Restore context of the selected process

43 Cooperating Processes
Independent process cannot affect or be affected by the execution of another process Cooperating process can affect or be affected by the execution of another process Advantages of process cooperation Information sharing Computation speed-up Modularity Convenience

44 Interprocess Communication (IPC)
Mechanism for processes to communicate and to synchronize their actions Message system – processes communicate with each other without resorting to shared variables IPC facility provides two operations: send(message) – message size fixed or variable receive(message) If P and Q wish to communicate, they need to: establish a communication link between them exchange messages via send/receive Implementation of communication link physical (e.g., shared memory, hardware bus) logical (e.g., logical properties)

45 Direct Communication Processes must name each other explicitly:
send (P, message) – send a message to process P receive(Q, message) – receive a message from process Q Properties of communication link Links are established automatically A link is associated with exactly one pair of communicating processes Between each pair there exists exactly one link The link may be unidirectional, but is usually bi-directional

46 Indirect Communication
Messages are directed and received from mailboxes (also referred to as ports) Each mailbox has a unique id Processes can communicate only if they share a mailbox Properties of communication link Link established only if processes share a common mailbox A link may be associated with many processes Each pair of processes may share several comm. links Link may be unidirectional or bi-directional

47 Indirect Communication
Operations create a new mailbox send and receive messages through mailbox destroy a mailbox Primitives are defined as: send(A, message) – send a message to mailbox A receive(A, message) – receive a message from mailbox A

48 Indirect Communication
Mailbox sharing P1, P2, and P3 share mailbox A P1, sends; P2 and P3 receive Who gets the message? Solutions Allow a link to be associated with at most two processes Allow only one process at a time to execute a receive operation Allow the system to select arbitrarily the receiver. Sender is notified who the receiver was.

49 Synchronization Message passing may be either blocking or non-blocking
Blocking is considered synchronous Blocking send has the sender block until the message is received Blocking receive has the receiver block until a message is available Non-blocking is considered asynchronous Non-blocking send has the sender send the message and continue Non-blocking receive has the receiver receive a valid message or null

50 Threads Resource ownership - process includes a virtual address space to hold the process image Scheduling/execution- follows an execution path that may be interleaved with other processes These two characteristics are treated independently by the operating system Dispatching is referred to as a thread or lightweight process Resource of ownership is referred to as a process or task

51 Multithreading Operating system supports multiple threads of execution within a single process MS-DOS supports a single thread UNIX supports multiple user processes but only supports one thread per process Windows, Solaris, Linux, Mach, and OS/2 support multiple threads


53 Process Have a virtual address space which holds the process image
Protected access to processors, other processes, files, and I/O resources

54 Thread An execution state (running, ready, etc.)
Saved thread context when not running Has an execution stack Some per-thread static storage for local variables Access to the memory and resources of its process all threads of a process share this


56 Benefits of Threads Takes less time to create a new thread than a process Less time to terminate a thread than a process Less time to switch between two threads within the same process Since threads within the same process share memory and files, they can communicate with each other without invoking the kernel

57 Uses of Threads in a Single-User Multiprocessing System
Foreground to background work Asynchronous processing Speed of execution Modular program structure

58 Threads Suspending a process involves suspending all threads of the process since all threads share the same address space Termination of a process, terminates all threads within the process

59 Thread States States associated with a change in thread state Spawn
Spawn another thread Block Unblock Finish Deallocate register context and stacks

60 Remote Procedure Call Using Single Thread

61 Remote Procedure Call Using Threads

62 Multithreading

63 User-Level Threads All thread management is done by the application
The kernel is not aware of the existence of threads

64 Kernel-Level Threads Windows is an example of this approach
Kernel maintains context information for the process and the threads Scheduling is done on a thread basis

65 Kernel-Level Threads This approach overcome the two principal drawbacks of ULT approach The kernel can simultaneously schedule threads on different processors If one thread of a process is blocked it can schedule another thread of the same process The disadvantage is Transfer of control from one thread to another thread within the same process requires mode switching

66 Combined Approaches Example is Solaris
Thread creation done in the user space Bulk of scheduling and synchronization of threads within application

67 Combined Approaches -Adv
Multiple threads within the same application can run concurrently on a number of processors. Blocking system calls need not block the entire process.

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