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MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS Third Edition ANDREW S. TANENBAUM Introduction Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights.

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Presentation on theme: "MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS Third Edition ANDREW S. TANENBAUM Introduction Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights."— Presentation transcript:

1 MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS Third Edition ANDREW S. TANENBAUM Introduction Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

2 What Is An Operating System (1) A modern computer consists of One or more processors Main memory Disks Printers Various input/output devices Managing all these components requires a layer of software – the operating system Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

3 What Is An Operating System (2) Figure 1-1. Where the operating system fits in. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

4 The Operating System as an Extended Machine Figure 1-2. Operating systems turn ugly hardware into beautiful abstractions. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

5 The Operating System as a Resource Manager Allow multiple programs to run at the same time Manage and protect memory, I/O devices, and other resources Includes multiplexing (sharing) resources in two different ways: In time In space Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

6 History of Operating Systems Generations 1.(1945–55) Vacuum Tubes 2.(1955–65) Transistors and Batch Systems 3.(1965–1980) ICs and Multiprogramming 4.(1980–Present) Personal Computers Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

7 Transistors and Batch Systems (1) Figure 1-3. An early batch system. (a) Programmers bring cards to (b)1401 reads batch of jobs onto tape. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

8 Transistors and Batch Systems (2) Figure 1-3. (c) Operator carries input tape to (d)7094 does computing. (e) Operator carries output tape to Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

9 Transistors and Batch Systems (3) Figure 1-3. (f) 1401 prints output. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

10 Transistors and Batch Systems (4) Figure 1-4. Structure of a typical FMS job. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

11 Figure 1-5. A multiprogramming system with three jobs in memory. ICs and Multiprogramming Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

12 Computer Hardware Review Figure 1-6. Some of the components of a simple personal computer. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

13 Operating System Concepts Figure 1-7. (a) A three-stage pipeline. (b) A superscalar CPU. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

14 Figure 1-8. (a) A quad-core chip with a shared L2 cache. (b) A quad-core chip with separate L2 caches. Multithreaded and Multicore Chips Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

15 Figure 1-9. A typical memory hierarchy. The numbers are very rough approximations. Memory (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

16 Questions when dealing with cache 1.When to put a new item into the cache. 2.Which cache line to put the new item in. 3.Which item to remove from the cache when a slot is needed. 4.Where to put a newly evicted item in the larger memory. Memory (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

17 Figure Structure of a disk drive. Disks Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

18 Figure (a) The steps in starting an I/O device and getting an interrupt. I/O Devices (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

19 Figure 1-11.(b) Interrupt processing involves taking the interrupt, running the interrupt handler, returning to the user program. I/O Devices (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

20 Figure The structure of a large Pentium system Buses Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

21 The Operating System Zoo 1.Mainframe operating systems 2.Server operating systems 3.Multiprocessor operating systems 4.Personal computer operating systems 5.Handheld operating systems 6.Embedded operating systems 7.Sensor node operating systems 8.Real-time operating systems 9.Smart card operating systems Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

22 1.Processes 2.Address spaces 3.Files 4.Input/Output 5.Protection 6.The shell 7.Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Large memories Protection hardware Disks Virtual memory Operating System Concepts Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

23 Processes Figure A process tree. Process A created two child processes, B and C. Process B created three child processes, D, E, and F. Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

24 Figure A file system for a university department. Files (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

25 Figure (a) Before mounting, the files on the CD-ROM are not accessible. (b) After mounting, they are part of the file hierarchy. Files (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

26 Figure Two processes connected by a pipe. Files (3) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

27 Figure The 11 steps in making the system call read(fd, buffer, nbytes). System Calls Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

28 Figure Some of the major POSIX system calls. The return code s is 1 if an error has occurred. The return codes: pid is a process id, fd is a file descriptor, n is a byte count, position is an offset within the file, and seconds is the elapsed time. System Calls for Process Management (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

29 Figure Some of the major POSIX system calls. The return code s is 1 if an error has occurred. The return codes: pid is a process id, fd is a file descriptor, n is a byte count, position is an offset within the file, and seconds is the elapsed time. System Calls for Process Management (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

30 Figure Some of the major POSIX system calls. The return code s is 1 if an error has occurred. The return codes: pid is a process id, fd is a file descriptor, n is a byte count, position is an offset within the file, and seconds is the elapsed time. System Calls for Process Management (3) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

31 Figure Some of the major POSIX system calls. The return code s is 1 if an error has occurred. The return codes: pid is a process id, fd is a file descriptor, n is a byte count, position is an offset within the file, and seconds is the elapsed time. System Calls for Process Management (4) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

32 Figure A stripped-down shell. Throughout this book, TRUE is assumed to be defined as 1. System Calls for Process Management (5) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

33 Figure Processes have three segments: text, data, and stack. System Calls for Process Management (6) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

34 Figure (a) Two directories before linking /usr/jim/memo to asts directory. (b) The same directories after linking. System Calls for Directory Management (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

35 Figure (a) File system before the mount. (b) File system after the mount. System Calls for Directory Management (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

36 Figure The Win32 API calls that roughly correspond to the UNIX calls of Fig Windows Win32 API (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

37 Windows Win32 API (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved Figure The Win32 API calls that roughly correspond to the UNIX calls of Fig

38 Monolithic systems – basic structure 1.A main program that invokes the requested service procedure. 2.A set of service procedures that carry out the system calls. 3.A set of utility procedures that help the service procedures. Operating Systems Structure Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

39 Figure A simple structuring model for a monolithic system. Monolithic Systems Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

40 Figure Structure of the THE operating system. Layered Systems Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

41 Figure Structure of the MINIX 3 system. Microkernels Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

42 Figure The client-server model over a network. Client-Server Model Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

43 Figure The structure of VM/370 with CMS. Virtual Machines (1) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

44 Figure (a) A type 1 hypervisor. (b) A type 2 hypervisor. Virtual Machines (2) Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

45 1.The C language 2.Header files 3.Large programming projects 4.The model of run time The World According to C Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved

46 Figure The process of compiling C and header files to make an executable. The Model of Run Time Tanenbaum, Modern Operating Systems 3 e, (c) 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. All rights reserved


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