Presentation on theme: "HN Social Sciences Development Day Social sciences Skills The new award Assessment."— Presentation transcript:
HN Social Sciences Development Day Social sciences Skills The new award Assessment
Good time to be studying social sciences! Economic crisis Rising unemployment, alienation, addiction etc. Social media Civil unrest and riots Occupy movements Cult of celebrity Culture of narcissism Toffocracy in power again Scottish independence?
Good time to be teaching social sciences? Public sector under attack and in crisis FE in crisis – funding, redundancies, mergers etc. Prioritising course provision with skills development and 16-19 (-24) year old age groups top of the list Uncertain progression and positive destinations for our students due to the above Social sciences = a soft target
Social sciences are important Couldnt be more relevant Socratic – Know thyself and The unexamined life is not worth living! Self consciousness of our society Critical citizenship Interculturalism and tolerance And we can do enterprise! But lets not forget skills….
Winning the skills argument Specific and general Transferable Essential Core Soft High order thinking
High order skills High Order Skills Excellence Group publication (2011) reporting for the Cabinet Secretary: Deep learning is the central principle of Curriculum for Excellence. It involves knowledge, understanding and the skills needed to apply knowledge in useful ways. The promotion of skills is, therefore, a key function of the curriculum. People acquire advanced skills at every stage of life and, therefore, teachers (and all other learning providers) should cultivate these skills from the earliest years onwards.
New HN awards Developed with the following in mind – CfE, skills for learning, life and work SQA skills framework Changing forms of assessment in HEIs = An assessment strategy with greater focus on skills development and flexibility – quality over quantity
First steps at Abcol Importance of planning for assessment Horizontal planning (course) Vertical planning (subject) Gradually building in the new instruments of assessment e.g. blogs and academic posters with presentations Skills need to be delivered Tracking against skills Contexts need to be meaningful Skills need to be explicit, owned by the learner and valued by all Assessment of skills should be systematic - formative and summative
In 1851 a survey found that about 40% of the population attended a religious ceremony on a chosen Sunday (Lambert, T. No date). This is a higher turnout than recorded in 2001, where just 33% of the Scottish population claimed that they were religious but, no details about attending ceremonies was mentioned (ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS, 2001). We took part in a Social Science Investigation into changes in family structures and the reasons behind these. We paid particular attention to the period between 1851 and present day. The main investigation required comparison of Census data to be made. The graphs below illustrate our findings. From looking at the graph it is obvious that the extended family is dying out as there is an obvious fall in the number of extended families (nuclear family plus blood relatives, often includes 3 generations) between 1851 and present day. This could be because there are better welfare for families in Aberdeen as present day as most people are now able to send their children through the education system, can afford care for their elderly family such as carers and have access to healthcare for all their family this therefore means that the extended family is not necessary like it once was. Furthermore as industry increases and job prospects arise for families, they may end up having to relocate geographically, meaning that part of their family is left behind. Another family type which sees' an increase according to these two Aberdeen censuss is one person families (other than pensioners). The percentage increase in 2001 from 1851 is approximately 21%. Furthermore proposing that people are not so dependent on marriage as they once were, as women in particular are now able to get jobs to support themselves which would not have been common in 1851. People who are getting married are also on average marrying at an older age so are alone until they marry if they do marry at all, as Margaret Davis suggests The average age for those getting hitched has gone up by around five years since 1991, and in 2006 the average age for a first marriage was 31.8 for men and 29.7 for women. (2008). It is also a fact that divorce would not have been accepted up until the mid 1900s but is vastly increasing in present day, which could be another reason why there are so many people recorded to be living on their own in 2001 in Aberdeen. It is evident that one person (pensioners) as a family type was a lot more common in 2001 than in 1851. When compared there was approximately 4% falling into this category in 1851 and this increased to about 13% in 2001. This suggests that people are living longer, this could be because benefits such as pensions and free healthcare and travel were available in 2001 which they did not have access to in 1851. The graphs show that unexpectedly lone parent families have decreased in Aberdeen from 9% to 5% in 2001. This could be due to people dying at an earlier age and leaving one parent to look after the children, but it could also be that many husbands worked away for periods of time e.g. sailors and when analysed on data they were classed as lone-parents as no partner was mentioned. This decline in religion may indicate to the reasoning behind the difference between family types in 1851 and in 2001. As some religions, such as Catholicism, do not support the use of contraception or abortion, the impact of fewer children can be displayed in the graph. Some Catholic supporters have been known to believe that Those who contracept are spiritually dead (sic) (Foy, V. 2002). Bibliography Census for Aberdeen 1851 [Accessed Aberdeen Central Library 12/04/11] Census 2001, General Register Office for Scotland [Online] Available: http://www.gro- scotland.gov.uk/census/censushm/index.html [Accessed 12/04/11] Margaret Davis (2008). Marriage rates lowest since records began. [online]. Available from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/marriage-rates-lowest-since-records-began- 800851.html Accessed on 19/03/11 Foy, V. Contraception is Anti-Church, 2002 [Online[ Available: http://www.catholicevangelism.org/family-contraception-2.shtml [Accessed 18/04/11]
How has mental health treatment changed in Aberdeen since 1851 to 2011. As mental illness has changed massively since 1851 to nowadays by improved medicaments, treatments, technology used, which makes diagnosis more reliable and most importantly the attitudes from public and carers towards the patients, which means that ill people are more likely to seek medical attention and getting the right treatment for it, therefore this is an interesting and important topic to research First of all the plan was set out and question created, in order to know what to look for and what detail to put into investigation. Then primary data was collected in library from Census 1837 in order to gather information about how many people actually lived there. After the secondary sources of information were looked at such like available books and journals. Throughout the investigation project time multiple online resources were used for information. Aberdeen Lunatic Asylum was opened in 1800, known today as Royal Cornhill Hospital, which had 12 cells and in first 18 month 27 patients were admitted. In 1841 there were 197 patients staying in Aberdeen Lunatic Asylum. (medical report)The need for more places grew and by 1857 the average number of patients per day was 291, therefore, when Lunacy Act Scotland 1857 came into power, each district had to take care of their own patients. The latest redevelopment for hospital was done in 1994 and it has 90 long stay beds, 180 acute psychiatry beds, out-patient accommodation and the Fulton clinic. In 1851 there were 173 (85 female, 95 male) patients living in Aberdeen Lunatic Asylum of which 2 (1female, 1 male) were in age group of 10-19, 21(7female, 14male) in age group of 20-29, 41(26female, 15male) in age group of30-39, 40(20female, 20 male) in age group of 40-49, 32(17female, 15male) in age group of 50-59 and 37(24female, 13 male) from 60 and older, which is shown in graph below, in order to see the differences clearly. In 1960s 70s it become clear, that people who were staying in mental institutions were not getting better, but worse, scandals around poor standards of care and conditions, which was the turning point for setting the way towards removing a long stay mental hospitals, and introducing the community care. In nowadays people are admitted to mental institutions only on very rare occasions, when most patients leave the hospital after a few weeks, whereas back in 1851 people spent their whole life in the asylum. People can be admitted to mental institutions only voluntarily or under the Mental Health Act 1983 with amendments done in 1995 (introducing the aftercare), which basically means, that a person would be admitted to a mental institution only in a case, when he is a life threat to himself or others. Another important finding is from the medical report of Lunatic Asylum of Aberdeen in 1841, which shows for what reason the patient has been admitted to the Asylum, for example dementia and fatuity, which is an older people illness and treated as a normal disease, not mental, fever, which is not considered as a mental illness at all or disappointment in love, which is more likely to be defined as a depression at some sort of a level. The most interesting case that was found on report is person suffering from childbirth, which is quite popularly known as a Post natal Depression in nowadays. The medical report from Lunatic Asylum of Aberdeen in 8141 supports the fact that people were likely to spend their whole lives in the Asylum and would not know, when they will be leaving, once admitted. On 1 st of May in 1841 there were remaining 141. Out of all 141 patients, 117 were considered as incurable and rest of 24 patients of which 15 were considered as unfavourable with some chances of improvement and only 9 curable patients, therefore this evidence proves that most of the people were likely to stay in the Asylum for no fixed period of time. Victorian periodNow -Long term period of residence -Bad attitudes from public and carers, because of lack of knowledge, research -Lack of other social provision for mental illness patients -Short term residence in the mental institution, because of community care, as well as the costs of mental institution -Attitudes from carers and public have improved, because it is seen as beneficial for patients to integrate into society -Patients can be treated with drugs, as well as the research carried out helps to understand better the illnesses. References Ramsay R., Gerada C., Mars S., Szmukler G. (2001) Mental Illness, A Handbook for Carers, London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers 19.04.2011. Scottish Archive Network. Online. Available from: http://184.108.40.206/catalogue/person.aspx?code=NA15782&st= 1&. [Accessed on 16.03.2011] http://220.127.116.11/catalogue/person.aspx?code=NA15782&st= 1& From History to her story. Online. Available from: http://www.historytoherstory.org.uk. [Accessed on 16.03.2011] http://www.historytoherstory.org.uk Care Quality Commission. Online. Available from: http://www.cqc.org.uk. [Accessed on 19.04.2011] http://www.cqc.org.uk Department of Health. Online. Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk. [Accessed on 16.03.2011] http://www.dh.gov.uk McKinney B. E. (10.11.2009) Mental Illness in the Victorian Era. Online. Available.from: http://www.suite.101.com. [Accessed on 16.03.2011]http://www.suite.101.com 03.2002. Reviews in History. Online. Available from: http://www.history.ac.uk. [Accessed on 16.03.2011 http://www.history.ac.uk http://www.abdn.ac.uk/~ltu004/ws/thomson/t73-2.dochttp://www.abdn.ac.uk/~ltu004/ws/thomson/t73-2.doc. Census 1851 microfilm
Functionalism is a Macro level Consensus theory which sees society as a complex system with various different parts working together in order to produce a stable and prosperous society. Durkheim uses what has become known as the biological analogy to compare society to that of a living organism. Connecting parts of society i.e the social institutions need to work in harmony with one another to ensure a healthy society. Functionalism emphasises the importance of a moral consciousness in society and a general consensus over basic norms and values, ensuring continued social order. (Giddens, A. 2009) Marxism is a Macro level Conflict theory whose key theorist is Karl Marx. It sees society as a conflict between the two main social classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Marx argued that we live in a capitalist society with the bourgeoisie controlling and exploiting the proletariat causing social unrest between the classes. There is huge importance on the economy, as it shapes and underlines the whole of society. Marxs superstructure model of society, economic production has two key elements, technology and social relationships. Technology refers to industry and social relationships refers to the relationships between the capitalist ruling class, who control economic production and the workers, who are the source of labour. Upon this foundation lie the major social institutions and core cultural values of a society, which created by the bourgeoisie to keep us in control. All of these social elements joined together to form the superstructure. This shows us how a theory of conflict characterises the relationship between society and the individual in the context of social stratification. (Macionis and Plummer, 2008) Symbolic Interactionism is a Micro level Social Action theory based on key theorist George Herbert Meads work on the social nature of the human being and focuses on the way in which humans use symbols such as language to interact. This theory stresses the importance of these interactions in creating society and social institutions. It provides an account of the important phases of child development, giving particular attention to the development of the childs sense of self. According to the work of G H Mead, young children develop as social beings as a result of the actions of those around them. It is through play that a child learns what Mead called taking the role of the other. The socialisation of young children takes place in early childhood through the parent/carer, then in education through teachers and peer groups and in later life through workmates. Symbolic Interactionism can therefore help us explain the relationship between the individual and society through the socialisation process. (Giddens, A, 2009) Sociology emerged from enlightenment, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. The industrial revolution and urbanization changed people traditions and life styles, breaking down established patterns of social life. People moved from country side to large, anonymous cities to work in big factories.. Change happened from Gemainschaft what was broadly characterized by a moderate division of labour, strong personal relationships, strong families, and relatively simple social institutions to Gesellschaft when individuals acting in their own self interest emphasizing second relationships rather than community ties, and there is generally less individual loyalty in society. Auguste Comte, who grew up with the changes of the French Revolution all around him was hugely influenced by the changes in individuals and society. He gave name to sociology, confidently expecting that it would provide the highest level of scientific explanation in establishing laws of human society itself. C.Wright Mills was one of the leading sociologists who brought new ideas to society and the study of society.. He poses three questions that have to be answered in order for there to be any enlightenment on how a society behaves the way it does; 1. Structure – What are the components of a society ? Does it change? How does it differ from other societies?, 2. History – What historical factors are there that shapes a society and teach us about human behaviour? 3. Biography - What type of people live in society? How do everyday actions shape society? Private troubles and public issues. Mills suggested that when looking at society, we have to look at the bigger picture. This means looking beyond the familiar to see the reasons behind it. This was called using the Sociological Imagination. When a man is unemployed in a city then it was his private trouble. However when a nation of 6 million and over half are unemployed, this becomes a public issue. For example, here are some private troubles that have become rising public issues: Divorce rates, Unemployment rates Poverty and deprivation Drugs and alcohol Depression Gap between rich and poor The Macro way of looking at society is generally applied when looking at the bigger picture. An individual does not have much influence on the world around it and social institutions, such as education. These forces shape the individual and their choices. social class determines what type of school it will most likely go to, and the higher the social class the better the school. The better the school equates ultimately to a better job. Whereas if from a poorer education can lead to either a low paid job or unemployment despite the individuals abilities. The micro view of sociology is looking at social actions and how that shapes society, instead of the social institutions., looking at how symbolic interaction can shape society. First Rule of Sociology What is Sociology? Karl Marx
What is Sociology? The Origins of Sociology Sociology was developed out of great social change during the 18 th and 19 th centauries One important social change that aided the development of sociology is the industrial revolution which occurred during the 18 th centaury. As a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, It resulted in a major growth of cities – People moved away from the country-side in the search for jobs that such a change brought. It resulted in an anonymous workforce as people no longer lived in close-knit communities which was previously the norm in society. This in term then affect the way in which people socialised between each other and early sociologists were interested in examining the social interaction between humans. The Enlightenment was the first time in history that sociological thinkers tried to provide explanations of society. They were able to detach themselves from society and attempt to lay down general principles that explained social life. (Collins 1994, 17). Sociological Imagination The idea of the sociological imagination was developed by C Wright Mills in 1959. The study of sociology offers individuals a unique way of thinking about the world in which we live in. There are three components which C Wright Mill argued are essential to look at when studying sociology and thinking sociologically; (1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? What are its essential components, and how are they related to one another? How does it differ from other varieties of social order? Within it, what is the meaning of any particular feature for its continuance and for its change? (2) Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it is changing? What is its place within and its meaning for the development of humanity as a whole? How does any particular feature we are examining affect, and how is it affected by, the historical period in which it moves? And this period - what are its essential features? How does it differ from other periods? What are its characteristic ways of history-making? (3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and repressed, made sensitive and blunted? What kinds of `human nature' are revealed in the conduct and character we observe in this society in this period? And what is the meaning for 'human nature' of each and every feature of the society we are examining? (Mills, 1959) Macro/Micro perspectives to sociology In macro sociology, sociologists study society as a structured whole.They want to generalize their ideas to the whole of society. For example they look at what education does for society as a whole not just certain people in society. In micro sociology, sociologists study face- to-face interactions between individuals and small groups to examine society. This includes body language and symbols (e.g. Wedding rings to symbolise marriage). In doing this, the interactions between individuals shape society. Concepts The first concept being socialisation, this is where individuals learn the norms, values, language and attitudes of their society and the roles they have to play within it. G. H Mead believed in socialisation is an important part of personality formation, although some of the personality traits are genetic personality can be formed through growing up within a certain society where certain things are acceptable. The next concept is social order; this is where laws and regulations have been put into place to keep everyone within the society in order. Governments and organisations put laws in place and will use formal sanctions such as fines and imprisonment to keep the society in order. The last concept is social stratification; this is the belief that society has been arranged in a way that groups individuals finding themselves in a position of advantages or disadvantages. Known as a hierarchy, this could involve gender, social class and ethnicity. Bibliography Mills, C. Wright. (1959) The Sociological Imagination [Online] Available from http://legacy.lclark.edu/~goldman/socimagination.html [Accessed 1st December 2011] http://legacy.lclark.edu/~goldman/socimagination.html Sixsense (2005) Marxism [Online] Available from http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/sociology/as_sociology/marxism.asp [Accessed 1st December 2011] http://sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk/sociology/as_sociology/marxism.asp Greek, C. (2005) functionalist Explanations of Crime. Available from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week7.htm http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week7.htm [Accessed 1st December 2011] Functionalism The explanation of a social phenomenon is undertaken, we must seek separately the efficient cause which produces it and the function it fulfills. (Greek, 2005) Functionalist sociologists see society as stable and healthy as they see the good in everything, even crime! They also believe that society is based on consensus, meaning that we are all in agreement and that we are socialised by others to agree on the way we behave and the difference from right and wrong. Marxism a theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in Western societies. Marxism is a macro level conflict theory which examines society as a structured whole. They see society as consisting of inequalities, especially between two social classes (bourgeoisie and proletariat).
To smile or not to smile: AN INVESTIGATION INTO WHETHER OR NOT A SMILE IS INFECTIOUS HND SOCIAL SCIENCES – YR 2 D5DS-F092A INTRODUCTION Kramer (1977), in a study of stereotypical beliefs about verbal gender differences, found some beliefs about gender differences in nonverbal behaviors as well. Women were believed to smile more than men, to use the face and hands to express ideas more than men, and to be more concerned about the listener. Men were believed to be louder but less talkative than women (Briton, 1995). In the 1980s researchers such as Morse (1982), Ragan (1982), and LaFrance (1985) conducted studies of yearbook photographs, with the aim of establishing gender differences in smiling. The researchers examined photographs of college and high school year books in the USA, and found as a result of these studies that women frequently smiled more than men. By conducting a research influenced by previous research studies by Morse (1982), Ragan (1982), and LaFrance (1985) in relation to smiling in photographs, the aim of the research study was to establish that when a photographer smiled at an individual before taking a photograph, the individual would smile back in response, as the photograph was taken. RESULTS The mean result for condition 1 where photographer was smiling (mean smiling 2.63) is higher than the mean result for condition 2 where photographer was not smiling (mean not smiling 1.25). This is also true for the median and mode (median smiling 3, median not smiling 1) and (mode smiling 4 & 1, not smiling 0). The standard deviation for the photographer smiling condition is 1.408 and for the photographer not smiling condition is 1.282. This suggests that the scores in condition 2 are more spread out, therefore less reliable to the researcher than scores for condition 1 of which the researcher would be more confident about.. The statistical test was calculated using SPSS version 15, and results were analysed using an Independent Samples Test because data is parametric and related, the result from the Independent Sample Test was t (14) = 2.04; p < 0.05 this shows that there is a significant difference between the two conditions. METHOD This study was a field experiment. A field experiment was chosen because the environment is more true to life, meaning research is more ecologically valid, and the I.V. can still be manipulated by the experimenter. Independent measures were chosen because there were two conditions of the experiment also if more data was required then it could easily be changed to repeated measures. The I.V. had two conditions. Therefore the experiment was split between two mixed groups of equal amounts of males and females i.e. each group consisted of four males and four females. Participants photographs were taken by researcher who was either smiling at them as photograph was taken or was not smiling at participant as photographs were taken, this was dependent on which group the participant was in. The D.V. was whether or not the researcher smiling or not smiling influenced participants in each group to smile for photograph or not to smile for photograph. All participants were given the same standardised instructions to follow from the researcher. DISCUSSION The results showed that individuals could be influenced into smiling for a photograph if the photographer smiled at them before taking photograph. Results also showed significant gender differences in smiling for photographs i.e. equal amounts of females and males were used in each of the two conditions, the results show the mean of females smiling at photographer is 25.50 as opposed to the mean result for males smiling at photographer which were 24.25. The standard deviation result shows females smiling to be 16.257 compared to that of males which were 10.767. This then shows a significant gender difference with regards to being influenced to smile. Therefore results from the gender differences in this study, also backs up the findings from studies conducted by Morse (1982), Ragan (1982), and LaFrance (1985). In conclusion The experimental hypothesis was supported, it showed a directional hypothesis as participants were influenced to smile by photographer smiling by a mean result for condition 1 where photographer was smiling 2.63 compared to mean result for condition 2 where photographer was not smiling 1.25. Also a result using an Independent Sample Test was t (14) = 2.04; p < 0.05 again showing a significant difference between the two conditions. REFERENCES Briton, N., and Hall, J. (1995) Beliefs about female and male nonverbal communication. [Online] Bnet: CBS Interactive Business UK. Available from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n1- 2_v32/ai_17012184 [Accessed 6th March 2010]. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n1- 2_v32/ai_17012184 Freelibrary. (2010) The free library: Smiling in school yearbook photos: Gender differences from kindergarten to adulthood. [Online] Available from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/SMILING+IN+SCHOOL+YEA RBOOK+PHOTOS%3a+GENDER+DIFFERENCES+FROM...-a058500443http://www.thefreelibrary.com/SMILING+IN+SCHOOL+YEA RBOOK+PHOTOS%3a+GENDER+DIFFERENCES+FROM...-a058500443 [Accessed 6th March 2010] Gross, R. (2001) The Science of Mind and Behaviour 4th Edition. Kent: GreenGate Publishing Services. Hays, N., & Orrell, S. (1998) Psychology an Introduction (3rd edition) Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. THE EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS Participants who were smiled at by the photographer, would smile back at the photographer whilst photograph was being taken. Summary table showing mean, mode, median and standard deviation for both conditions of the research. Column chart showing visible mean results of photographer from both conditions of research. Photographer Smiling Photographer Not Smiling Mean 2.631.25 Mode (Bimodal) 4 & 10 Median 3.001.00 Standard deviation 1.4081.282 Photographer Influence 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Photographer smilingPhotographer not smiling Whether or not photographer smiled Mean Amount Series1
Blogs as an instrument of assessment College VLE/Blackboard Organised at course/programme level Essential / high order skills section Campaspack tools for online wikis, blogs and learning journals. Example given of Sociology C assessment on social control.