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Networks and TelecommunicationsAlter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Opening Case: FedEx Tracks each package through each step from shipper to recipient Expanded into being a fully integrated corporate partner that picks up, transports, warehouses, and delivers a customer’s finished goods E-business tools Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Applying Telecommunications in BusinessTELECOMMUNICATIONS – the transmission of data between devices in different locations Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Vital Role of Telecommunications in E-BusinessTelecommunications essential to: E-retailers E-marketplaces Internet content providers Internet service providers (ISPs) Application service providers (ASPs) Telephone and cable companies Telecommunication equipment manufacturers Internet and telecommunications software firms Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Convergence of Computing and CommunicationsReliance of telecommunications on computers Role of telecommunications in computing New wired and wireless transmission New combinations of data and computing Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.1 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.2 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Types of Networks Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
A Typical Home Network Figure 10.3Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
A Local Area Network (LAN) in a BusinessLANs connect PCs and other equipment within a local area Benefits: Sharing equipment Sharing personal files Sending messages Sharing databases Administering software Usually wired, but may also be wireless Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.4 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
A Telephone Network: Figure 10.6Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
The Internet (From a User’s Viewpoint): Figure 10.7Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
A Wide Area Network (WAN)WANs are networks that span a wide geographical area Many uses, e.g., Form the communication backbone for large distributed organizations Focus on particular transaction processing application(s) Transfer and consolidate corporate data, etc. Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.8 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Functions and Components of Telecommunication NetworksAlter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Basic Terminology Network = a set of devices and communications channels Devices are called nodes Connectivity = the ability to transmit data between devices at different locations Switching = the process of directing a signal from its source to its destination Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Channel = a path along which data are transmittedWired or wireless Decoding = converting the data back into their original form upon arrival at its destination Network management = the process of monitoring the network’s operations, detecting and repairing faults, and balancing traffic Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.9 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Generating and Receiving DataAn ever increasing number of different types of devices can be connected to a network General purpose Special purpose Front-end processor – a specialized computer that handles network traffic for another computer Improves the efficiency of the overall system Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Transmitting Analog versus Digital DataData transmission requires that data be encoded as electrical or optical signals, and then decoded at destination Two important factors: Are the original data analog or digital? Are the data transmitted in analog or digital form? Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Analog data, analog signalOriginal signal added to a carrier signal Used for voice communication Analog data, digital signal Data must be digitized The digitized data are only an approximation of the original The quality depends on the precision of the digitizing process Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Digital data, analog signalMust use a modem at each end Superimposes a pattern of 0s and 1s on the carrier signal Digital data, digital signal Modems are no longer needed Digital subscriber line (DSL) Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Significance of analog vs. digital transmissionDigital technology improves the quality of the transmission Digital coding allows for error detection and correction Digital data can be readily manipulated High definition television (HDTV) Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Directing Data From Source to DestinationDedicated line – a telephone line leased by a firm, and used exclusively by that firm Switch – a special purpose computer that directs incoming messages along a path Private branch exchange (PBX) – a special-purpose computer that distributes calls within a customer’s site Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Circuit Switching vs. Packet SwitchingThe method used in telephone networks Sets up a temporary circuit between the source and the destination Resources are reserved for the duration of the session (call) Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
PACKET SWITCHING: Appropriate when data are transmitted infrequently from a large number of nodes Used on the Internet The message is divided into packets containing control information No circuit is established Provides better sharing of resources Multiple users share the same resources Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.13 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Transmitting Data Through Wire and Wireless MediaBandwidth – corresponds to the capacity of the transmission channel Mbps or Gbps A major limitation for the information superhighway Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Wired Transmission TWISTED PAIR COAXIAL CABLEUsed for voice transmission and for low volume data transmission Slow COAXIAL CABLE Used in LANs and for data transmissions of less than 10 miles Faster and more versatile than twisted pair Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
FIBER OPTIC Carries data in the form of light Extremely fastVery light Very difficult to tap into Very little data loss Costly Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Wireless Transmission Figure 10.16Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Telecommunications StandardsDe facto standards – established by the fact that a product dominates the market, e.g., Windows De jure standards – defined by industry groups or by the government Many de facto standards become de jure standards Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
The OSI (open systems interface) model is a framework for defining telecommunications standardsCovers all aspects of network operations and management Developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) Each level in the model is implemented through protocols Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Figure 10.18 Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)Used on the Internet Five layer model HTML and HTTP are examples of application layer standards Open vs. proprietary standards Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
More About Network TechnologyAlter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
More About LANs Main topologies:Star – all messages go through a central node that serves as a switch Ring – the nodes are linked directly in a closed loop Bus – each node is attached to a central channel called a bus Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Token passing: Token – a bit pattern that circulates between the nodesOne of the most common methods for internal communication Used in ring topologies Token – a bit pattern that circulates between the nodes To transmit data, a node appends it to the token Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
LANs use two types of transmission:Baseband – the entire capacity of the cable is used to transmit a single digitally encoded signal Ex.: Ethernet Broadband – the capacity of the cable is divided into separate frequencies to permit it to carry several signals at the same time Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Interconnection devices – a combination of hardware and software:Routers Bridges Gateways Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
More About WANs Virtual private networks (VPNs):A private network configured within a public network Can be built on top of the Internet Service offered by the telephone companies and ISPs Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Value added networks (VANs):Public data networks that “add value” by transmitting data and by providing access to commercial databases and software Use packet switching Subscription based Often used in electronic data interchange (EDI) systems Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Public switched data network technologies (PSDN)Data flows through a public network managed by a telecommunications carrier Most common technologies: ISDN (integrated service digital network) X.25 Frame relay Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Wireless Networking Wireless application protocol (WAP) - a standard technology framework for wireless Internet Allows for some of the Internet content to be accessed by mobile devices Bluetooth – a fast short-range wireless technology Wireless office Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
IP Telephony Voice over the InternetLimited by the packet switching technology currently used by the Internet Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
Telecommunications PolicyWhy should the government permit only some companies to sell products in a particular line of business? What should be the rationale for regulating telecommunications and setting prices? Who should be able to use specific public resources, such as radio frequencies? To what extent is universal access possible and to what extent should it be guaranteed? Alter – Information Systems © 2002 Prentice Hall
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