Presentation on theme: "Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 TECHNOLOGY GUIDE FOUR Basics of Telecommunications and Networks."— Presentation transcript:
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 TECHNOLOGY GUIDE FOUR Basics of Telecommunications and Networks
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 2 Technology Guide Outline TG4.1 The Telecommunications System TG4.2 Types of Networks TG4.3 Network Fundamentals
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 3 Learning Objectives Understand the basic telecommunications system. Describe the major types of networks. Describe the Ethernet and TCP/IP protocols. Differentiate between client/server computing and peer-to-peer computing.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 4 The Telecommunications System A telecommunications system consists of hardware and software that transmit information from one location to another.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 5 Analog and Digital Signals
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 6 Typical Telecommunications System
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 7 Communications Processors Modem: –Device that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. dial-up modem DSL modem Cable modem Multiplexer: –An electronic device that allows a single communications channel to carry data transmissions simultaneously form many sources. Front-End Processor: –A specialized computer that manages all routing communications with peripheral devices.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 8 Communications Media and Channels Twisted-pair wire –Most prevalent form of communications wiring; consists of strands of copper wire twisted in pairs. Coaxial cable –Insulated copper wire used to carry high-speed data traffic and television signals. Fiber optics –Thin filaments of glass fibers that transmit information via light pulses generated by lasers.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 9 Twisted Pair Wire
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 10 Coaxial Cable
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 11 Fiber Optics Cable
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 12 Transmission Speed Bandwidth –The range of frequencies available in any communications channel. –Narrowband Low-speed transmission speed transmissions up to 64 Kbps. –Broadband High-speed transmission speeds ranging from 256 to several terabits per second.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 13 Transmission Technolgies Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) –Data transmission technology that allows users to transfer voice, video, image, and data simultaneously over existing telephone lines. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) –A high-speed, digital data transmission technology using existing analog telephone lines. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) –Data transmission technology that uses packet switching and allows for almost unlimited bandwidth on demand. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) –An interface standard for transporting digital signals over fiber optic lines that allows users to integrate transmissions from multiple vendors. T-Carrier System –Digital transmission system that defines circuits that operate at different rates, all of which are multiples of the basic 64 Kbps user to transport a single voice call.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 14 Types of Networks A computer network is a system that connects computers via communications media so that data can be transmitted among them. –Local area networks (LAN) Connects two or more devices in a limited geographical region –Wide are network (WAN) Networks that cover large geographical areas –Value-added network (VAN) A type of wide area network that are private, data-only networks managed by third parties that provide telecommunication and computing services to multiple organizations. –Enterprise network The entire network of an organization, usually consisting of multiple local area networks and multiple wide area networks.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 15 Local Area Network Network Interface Card –Hardware that allows devices in a LAN to physically connect to the communication medium. Switch –A special computer that allows devices in a LAN to communicate with each other. File Server –A special computer that contains user software and data files for a LAN, and the network operating system. Gateway –A communication processor that connects dissimilar networks by translating from one set of protocols to another. Bridge –A communication processor that connects two networks of the same type. Router –A communication processor that routes messages through several connected LANS or to a WAN.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 16 Wide Area Network
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 17 Enterprise Network
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 18 Network Fundamentals Network Protocol –A set of rules and procedures that govern transmission across a network. Ethernet –A common LAN protocol. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) –A file transfer protocol that can send large files of information across sometimes unreliable network with assurance that the data will arrive uncorrupted; the protocol of the Internet. Types of Network Processing –Client/server Links two or more computers in an arrangement in which some machines (called servers) provide computing services for user computers (called clients). –Peer-to-Peer processing A type of client/server distributed processing where each computer acts as both a client and a server.
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 19 The Four Layers of the TCP/IP Protocol
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 20 Packet Switching
Information Technology Foundations-BIT 112 21 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Peer-to-Peer Processing