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Lecture 1 Introduction to Europe Lecture 1 Introduction to Europe European Economic Issues.

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1 Lecture 1 Introduction to Europe Lecture 1 Introduction to Europe European Economic Issues

2 Introduction to the EU: Some descriptive data and first impressionsIntroduction to the EU: Some descriptive data and first impressions The origins of the EU:The origins of the EU: –Theory: Why Economists advocate Free Trade –Free Trade Areas, Customs Union, Common Market & Single European Market –Trade Creation and Trade Diversion –Europe & Globalisation (The Multi-fibre agreement) Common Agricultural Policy, Fisheries Policy and TransportCommon Agricultural Policy, Fisheries Policy and Transport Foreign Exchange theory, the origins of the European Monetary System, Optimal Currency area & European Business Cycle & the EuroForeign Exchange theory, the origins of the European Monetary System, Optimal Currency area & European Business Cycle & the Euro European Competition PolicyEuropean Competition Policy Regional Aid and Social CohesionRegional Aid and Social Cohesion

3 European Economic Issues Introduction to the EU: Some descriptive data and first impressionsIntroduction to the EU: Some descriptive data and first impressions Much of the material for this lecture is drawn from Chapter 2 of:Much of the material for this lecture is drawn from Chapter 2 of: Baldwin & Wyplosz: The Economics of European IntegrationBaldwin & Wyplosz: The Economics of European Integration McGraw Hill, 2009, 3 rd Edition.McGraw Hill, 2009, 3 rd Edition. The graphics are in turn drawn from the Eurostat data bases and up-to-date data can be accessed atThe graphics are in turn drawn from the Eurostat data bases and up-to-date data can be accessed at L L L L

4 Facts: Population Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

5 Facts: Population Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

6 Facts: Population /page?_pageid=1090, ,1090_ &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTA Lhttp://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal /page?_pageid=1090, ,1090_ &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTA L /page?_pageid=1090, ,1090_ &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTA Lhttp://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal /page?_pageid=1090, ,1090_ &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTA L

7 Facts: Population 6 big nations:6 big nations: –> 35 million (Germany, the UK, France, Italy, Spain and Poland). 2 Mid Sized:2 Mid Sized: –Romania 22 & Netherlands 16 million people. 9 small nations (size of a big city):9 small nations (size of a big city): –8 to 11 million: (Greece, Belgium, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, Bulgaria and Hungary). 11 tiny nations:11 tiny nations: –(size of a moderate to small city) –together make up less than 5 per cent of EU25 population –(Slovak Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia, Estonia, Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta.)

8 Facts: Population Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

9 Facts: Income per capita Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

10 Facts: Income per capita

11 Facts: Income per capita 11 high income – over 20,00011 high income – over 20,000 –Denmark, Ireland, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, Italy, Germany, France, UK and Sweden. 9 medium income category – from 10,000 to 20,0009 medium income category – from 10,000 to 20,000 –Spain, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Hungary, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Malta and the Slovak Republic. 6 low income nations, less than 10,0006 low income nations, less than 10,000 –Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey NB: Turkeys income is half that of the richest- of-the-poor, Estonia. NB: Turkeys income is half that of the richest- of-the-poor, Estonia. Luxembourg is in the super-high income category by itself.Luxembourg is in the super-high income category by itself. –per capita income is almost twice that of France –about 40% of Luxembourgers work so the average worker earns over 100,000 a year!

12 GDP v GNP: Does it matter For small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNPFor small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNP Ireland Gross National Product (nominal) 46,994124,

13 GDP v GNP: Does it matter For small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNPFor small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNP Ireland Gross National Product (nominal) 46,994124, Gross Domestic Product (nominal)

14 GDP v GNP: Does it matter For small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNPFor small countries it can: e.g. Ireland GDP>GNP Ireland Gross National Product (nominal) 46,994124, Gross Domestic Product (nominal) Nominal GNP per capita Nominal GDP per capita GDP is more than GNP by: 13%20%18% Matters when have many migrant workers (sending money back) or foreign investors sending profits awayMatters when have many migrant workers (sending money back) or foreign investors sending profits away UK GDP is less than GNP by:2% - so goes opposite wayUK GDP is less than GNP by: 2% - so goes opposite way Matters when have many migrant workers (sending money back) or foreign investors sending profits awayMatters when have many migrant workers (sending money back) or foreign investors sending profits away UK GDP is less than GNP by:2% - so goes opposite wayUK GDP is less than GNP by: 2% - so goes opposite way

15 Facts: Income per capita 22,000 Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

16 Facts: Size of Economies Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

17 Facts: Size of Economies Economic size distribution is VERY uneven.Economic size distribution is VERY uneven. Six nations (Germany, the UK, France, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands) account for more than 80% of EU25s economy.Six nations (Germany, the UK, France, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands) account for more than 80% of EU25s economy. Other nations are small, tiny or miniscule.Other nations are small, tiny or miniscule. Small is an economy that accounts for between 1% and 3% of the EU25s output:Small is an economy that accounts for between 1% and 3% of the EU25s output: –Sweden, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Poland, Finland, Greece, Portugal and Ireland. Tiny is one that accounts for less than 1% of the total:Tiny is one that accounts for less than 1% of the total: –Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, Romania, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Lithuania, and Cyprus. Miniscule is one that accounts for less than one- tenth of 1%:Miniscule is one that accounts for less than one- tenth of 1%: –Latvia, Estonia and Malta.

18 Facts: Size of Economies Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

19 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

20 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

21 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

22 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

23 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

24 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

25 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern The EU trades mainly with Europe, especially with itself:The EU trades mainly with Europe, especially with itself: –about two-thirds of EU exports and imports are to or from other Western European nations –the EUs exports to North America amount to only 10 per cent of its exports –Asias share is only 8 per cent. About 80 per cent of EU exports consist of industrial goods (intraindustry trade).About 80 per cent of EU exports consist of industrial goods (intraindustry trade).

26 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Imports + Exports GDP Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

27 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

28 Facts: EU15s Global Trade Pattern EU25 members are all comparatively open economies when it comes to trade in goods:EU25 members are all comparatively open economies when it comes to trade in goods: –openness ratio for the EU15 ranges from 17 per cent for Greece up to 75 per cent for the Belgium-Luxembourg –figures for the 10 newcomers are higher than Greeces figures for Japan and the US are 10 per cent and 8 per cent respectively. figures for Japan and the US are 10 per cent and 8 per cent respectively. EU15 market is very important for all EU25:EU15 market is very important for all EU25: –share of exports going to the EU15 ranges between 50 per cent to 80 per cent.

29 EU:The Budget: Expenditure EU:The Budget: Expenditure Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

30 Evolution of Spending Priorities Evolution of Spending Priorities Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

31 Evolution of Spending Priorities Evolution of Spending Priorities Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

32 Evolution of Spending Priorities Evolution of Spending Priorities Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

33 Evolution of Spending Priorities Evolution of Spending Priorities Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

34 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

35 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

36 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

37 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

38 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

39 Evolution of Spending, Level Evolution of Spending, Level Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

40 Funding of EU Budget Funding of EU Budget EUs budget must balance every year.EUs budget must balance every year. Financing sources: four main types:Financing sources: four main types: –Tariff revenue –Agricultural levies (tariffs on agricultural goods) –VAT resource (like a 1 per cent value added tax – reality is complex) –GNP based (tax paid by members based on their GNP).

41 Funding of EU Budget Funding of EU Budget MiscellaneousMiscellaneous –relatively unimportant since 1977 –taxes paid by eurocrats, fines and earlier surpluses –pre-1970s direct member contributions.

42 Evolution of Funding Sources Evolution of Funding Sources Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

43 Contribution vs GDP, 1999, 2000 Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz

44 Contribution vs GDP, 1999, 2000 Percentage of GDP per member is approximately 1 percent regardless of per- capita income.Percentage of GDP per member is approximately 1 percent regardless of per- capita income. EU contributions are not progressive, e.g. richest nation, (L) pays less of its GDP than the poorest nation (P).EU contributions are not progressive, e.g. richest nation, (L) pays less of its GDP than the poorest nation (P).

45 Net Contribution by Member Source: Baldwin & Wyplosz


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